Definition of 'Freemen' please

I am the agent for the fictional strawman that was created with the name Sarah Goldsmith made this Freedom of Information request to Law Commission

This request has been closed to new correspondence from the public body. Contact us if you think it ought be re-opened.

The request was partially successful.

I am the agent for the fictional strawman that was created with the name Sarah Goldsmith

Dear Law Commission,

The Magna Carta 1297 in 'Confirmation of Liberties' ,SI states {amongst other things} "We have granted also, and given to all the Freemen of our Realm, for Us and our Heirs for ever, these Liberties under-written, to have and to hold to them and their Heirs, of Us and our Heirs for ever"

In addition, in SXXIX 'Imprisonment, &c. contrary to Law. Administration of Justice' it states "NO Freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, or be disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties, or free Customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or any other wise destroyed; nor will We not pass upon him, nor [X1condemn him,] but by lawful judgment of his Peers, or by the Law of the Land. We will sell to no man, we will not deny or defer to any man either Justice or Right."

Therefore, in accordance with the FOI Act, please provide me with your definition of "Freemen" as mentioned in this act.

Thank you.

Yours faithfully,

Sarah Goldsmith

Communications Law Com, Law Commission

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I am the agent for the fictional strawman that was created with the name Sarah Goldsmith

Dear Communications Law Com,

You are obliged by law to answer within the statutory timeframe. Your response is now late....

Yours sincerely,

Sarah Goldsmith

LAWCOM (FOI), Law Commission

Dear Ms Goldsmith

Thank you for your email which has been referred to me. Our records show that Jonathan Teasdale responded to your earlier emails dated 20 July 2012 and 25 July 2012 on 01 August 2012 and we received your reply dated 01 August 2012 to his response. We cannot find a further request from you and I am therefore not sure what your email dated 22 August 2012 sent to the Communications mailbox refers to. I am sorry if we have overlooked any further correspondence that you may have sent to us. If you would be kind enough to re-send the FOI request to which you are referring, and if you would send it to the FOI mailbox (as above), it will be dealt with straightaway.

Yours sincerely

Dan Leighton | Law Commission Editor and Communications Manager |

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I am the agent for the fictional strawman that was created with the name Sarah Goldsmith

Dear LAWCOM (FOI),

I have only written one other request to the Law Commission and that was on 20 July 2012. That reply too, is overdue - no answers have been received...

This FOI request regards your recorded information regarding a definition of a word in an Act. This is the thread. Please respind ASAP in accordance with the law.
http://www.whatdotheyknow.com/request/de...

To save any further 'confusion', if that's what it is, I have pasted the entire question below as well:

"23 July 2012

Dear Law Commission,

The Magna Carta 1297 in 'Confirmation of Liberties' ,SI states
{amongst other things} "We have granted also, and given to all the
Freemen of our Realm, for Us and our Heirs for ever, these
Liberties under-written, to have and to hold to them and their
Heirs, of Us and our Heirs for ever"

In addition, in SXXIX 'Imprisonment, &c. contrary to Law.
Administration of Justice' it states "NO Freeman shall be taken or
imprisoned, or be disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties, or free
Customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or any other wise destroyed;
nor will We not pass upon him, nor [X1condemn him,] but by lawful
judgment of his Peers, or by the Law of the Land. We will sell to
no man, we will not deny or defer to any man either Justice or
Right."

Therefore, in accordance with the FOI Act, please provide me with
your recorded definition of "Freemen" as mentioned in this act."

Thank you.

Sarah Goldsmith

LAWCOM (FOI), Law Commission

This is an automatic acknowledgement of your email, which is being dealt
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Law Commission

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LAWCOM (FOI), Law Commission

Dear Ms Goldsmith

Thank you for your reply. I have checked our records and unfortunately can find no trace of the email you are referring to in any of our mailboxes. I would be grateful if you could kindly forward the original email to me and please send it to the FOI mailbox (as above). This should enable me to confirm which address it was originally sent to.

Yours sincerely

Dan Leighton | Law Commission Editor and Communications Manager |

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I am the agent for the fictional strawman that was created with the name Sarah Goldsmith

Dear LAWCOM (FOI),

It was sent via the whatdotheyknow.com website. As per the link I included in the message I sent you earlier today...

Yours sincerely,

Sarah Goldsmith

LAWCOM (FOI), Law Commission

This is an automatic acknowledgement of your email, which is being dealt
with. If we require further details from you, we will contact you again
before we send you a substantive reply.
 
Law Commission

This e-mail (and any attachment) is intended only for the attention of
the addressee(s). Its unauthorised use, disclosure, storage or copying
is not permitted. If you are not the intended recipient, please destroy
all
copies and inform the sender by return e-mail.

Internet e-mail is not a secure medium. Any reply to this message
could be intercepted and read by someone else. Please bear that in
mind when deciding whether to send material in response to this message
by e-mail.

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monitored, recorded and retained by the Ministry of Justice. E-mail
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Communications via the GSi may be automatically logged, monitored and/or
recorded for legal purposes.

LAWCOM (FOI), Law Commission

Dear Ms Goldsmith

Thank you for this further clarification. I am sorry that you have not received a reply to your original email. This is to confirm that we are considering your request and will send a reply to you as soon as possible.

Yours sincerely

Dan Leighton | Law Commission Editor and Communications Manager |

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Teasdale, Jonathan, Law Commission

1 Attachment

Dear Sarah Goldsmith,

I refer to your FoI request of 23 July 2012 which you re-sent to us on 29 August. We apologise for the delay in responding to your earlier communication.

You asked the Commission for any information which we hold relating to the definition of 'freeman' in the Magna Carta Act 1297 (which was a re-enactment with some variation of the Magna Carta 1215).

We have made enquiries within the Commission and do not believe that we have ever undertaken research work in this field or that we hold any relevant documentation produced by the Commission. We do, however, hold various secondary source texts on legal history in our law library.

In order to be helpful we have undertaken some brief research based on the texts we do hold (which texts should be available to you through other publicly accessible libraries). This research does not pretend to be definitive, and you should not take the contents of our note (which is attached to this response) as amounting to legal advice. In summary we conclude, based on sparse evidence, that 'freeman' in the context of Magna Carta denoted an individual who was either a freeholder (of land), being in status less than a mesne lord and greater than a villein (These hierarchical distinctions were recognised in feudal society of the Middle Ages).

If you are not content with the manner in which we have handled your request for information you can ask us to conduct an internal review of the request. Please write to Dan Leighton, our FoI co-ordinator, who will explain and initiate the review procedure for you. We ask that your request for a review is made within two months of the date of this e-mail message.

If you remain dissatisfied with the handling of your request you have a right of appeal to the Information Commissioner whose office is at: Wycliffe House, Water Lane, Wilmslow, Cheshire SK9 5AF (tel. 0303-123 1113 web www.ico.gov.uk).

We hope this helps.

Yours sincerely,

Jonathan Teasdale
Lawyer (Statute Law Repeals team)
Law Commission for England and Wales
Steel House
11 Tothill Street
LONDON SW1H 9LJ

tel: 020-3334 0241 (direct line)
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This e-mail (and any attachment) is intended only for the attention of
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Internet e-mail is not a secure medium. Any reply to this message
could be intercepted and read by someone else. Please bear that in
mind when deciding whether to send material in response to this message
by e-mail.

This e-mail (whether you are the sender or the recipient) may be
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read at any time. You have a responsibility to ensure laws are not
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