This is an HTML version of an attachment to the Freedom of Information request 'Animal Experiments in 2022'.

Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK   
Tel: +44(0)151 705 3100   
Fax: +44(0)151 705 3370   
Freedom of Information xxx@xxxxxx.xx.xx   
0151 702 9323   
LSTM ref: LSTM/FOI/23-010 
Name: Wendy Park 
 Date: 18/05/2023 
Dear Wendy, 
I am writing in response to your request for information on animal testing which was 
received on 21/04/2023. Please see below our response to your questions in bold. 
I request to know the information for the year 2022 (01/01/2022 to 31/12/2022). 
Q1. Did LSTM conduct experiments on animals in the year 2022? 
A1: LSTM researchers have conducted experiments on animals in 2022. These 
were regulated procedures, approved and monitored by The UK Home Office under 
The Animals in Scientific Procedures Act, 1986. These procedures were necessary 
to fulfil LSTM scientific research objectives to develop new drugs, diagnostics and 
therapeutics for tropical diseases. These procedures were conducted at specialist 
animal research facilities with dedicated husbandary, technical and veterinary 
support. All procedures were reviewed and approved by institutional animal welfare 
committees and Home Office Animals in Science Regulation Unit. 
Q2. How many animals were used in experiments (species & number of each)? 

Q3. How many animals were bred on the premises (species & number of 
A3: None. 

Q4. What was the nature and outcome of these experiments? 
A4: We used gerbils to: 
-generate parasites for testing outside the body (in vitro).  
These parasites were used in a variety of basic and translational research, including 
research into identifying new markers of infection and to understand how new 
candidate drugs target the parasite. 
We used mice to: 
-evaluate the effectiveness and mechanism of new parasitic drugs and combinations 
inside the body, 
-design a new dermal prototype biosensor of parasitic infection as a potential new 
-research new anti-venoms and combination small molecule treatments for snakebite 
All of these data support our clinical development pathway regarding decisions on 
what drugs, therapies and diagnostics should rationally proceed into human testing
Q5. What are the Home Office licence classifications for these experiments in 
 terms of pain, lasting harm, etc. if classified (species & number of each)? 
mild  moderate 




Q6. Were the animals used for medical or non-medical research? 
A6: All animals were used for medical research. 
Q7. Which departments at LSTM were or are engaged in such research? 
Tropical Disease Biology. 
Q8. How many animals were killed without being used for experiments 
(species & a number of each)?
A8: We maintain snakes for isolating venom (which is not categorised as a regulated 
5 snakes were euthanised on welfare grounds with 3 having tissues and glands 
extracted post-mortem for research purposes. 
5 Gerbils were culled for collection of blood post-mortem for research purposes. 
26 mice were culled for collection of tissues and blood post-mortem for research 

Q 9. How many animals were rehomed (species & number of each)? 
A9: No animals were re-homed. 
Q 10. Of those that were not re-homed, why not?
A10: Parasites, tissues and fluids (blood, venom) were required from the animals for 
research purposes after humanely destroying. 
Q11. Does LSTM receive an income for performing animal research? 
A11: LSTM receives grant income from funders such as UKRI, Wellcome Trust and 
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. This covers the costs of animal research. 
Q12. Does LSTM incur any costs by performing animal research? 
A12: Yes, which are covered in grant income. 
Q 3. Were there more non-animal research methods used than animal 
methods? Eg. 70% where non-animal models were used and 30% where animal 
models were used.
A13: Whilst we don’t collect precise data on each individual researcher’s 
proportional time spent on animal vs non-animal research (which is highly variable), 
Less than 10% of researchers at LSTM use animals directly in their research. 
Considering that within this group, researchers will spend most of their time on non-
animal alternatives (such as in vitro cell culture experiments), we can estimate <5% 
of total researcher time at LSTM directly involves animal research. 
Q14. Which non-animal research methods are available at LSTM? Eg. 3D 
printing, human skin cells, organ-on-a-chip. 
Researchers at LSTM are developing organoid and microphysiological in vitro 
systems. They are currently in evaluation phase. In future, if robustly validated, 
advanced in vitro models may be used as part of a ‘screening cascade’ to improve 
the translation of our research and reduce the numbers of animal experiments using 
candidate therapies with low-moderate effectiveness. We also use ‘in silico’ 
pharmacological models to predict efficacy based on in vitro data. However, we are 
not able to fully replace animal use, for instance, in testing effectiveness of a drug or 
anti-venom before funding, regulatory and ethical agreements are sought to trial 
novel treatments in humans. 
If any of this information is already in the public domain, please can you direct 
me to it, with page references and URLs if necessary.
Should you be dissatisfied with our response, please contact us within a reasonable 
time (within 2 months of this response) to xxx@xxxxxx.xx.xx   
If you remain dissatisfied, you may appeal this decision to the Information 
Commissioner. The contact details for the Information Commissioner are Wycliffe 

House, Water Lane, Wilmslow, Cheshire SK9 5AF, or via the website   
Should you require any further information or assistance in this matter, please do not 
hesitate to contact me at the above address.   
Yours sincerely,   
Data Protection and Freedom of Information Team