Amended FOI re:UK/US use of weapons I previously gave the misnomer 'Voice of God 'weapon systems

Paul Gaffney made this Freedom of Information request to Ministry of Defence

Waiting for an internal review by Ministry of Defence of their handling of this request.

From: Paul Gaffney

16 October 2009

Dear Sir or Madam,

I have read that that the US forces has experimented with the use
of such weapons (...microwave weapons,etc)in Afghanistan/Iraq .I am
writing to enquire
1)if this is true,
2)whether UK forces have used them, and further
3))if the use of such weapons is legal or if the opposite is trued
and such being the should be investigated and referred to
instiution such as the International Criminal Court.

Yours faithfully,

Paul Gaffney LLB BA

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Paul Gaffney left an annotation (21 October 2009)

Quote-marks I have copied in the following e-mail:

"HENNESSY, Mike to me
show details Oct 16 (5 days ago)

Dear Mr Gaffney,

The Chairman of the Committee, James Arbuthnot MP, has asked me to respond to your e-mail of 14 October concerning microwave weapons.

The Committee will shortly be undertaking its inquiry into defence equipment: Members will be free to raise whatever issues they wish to, and I am sure that if any share your concerns that inquiry will provide them with the opportunity to ask the MoD relevant questions.

Yours Sincerely,

Mike Hennessy

Michael Hennessy
Clerk
Defence Committee
House of Commons
London SW1A 0AA
Tel: 020 7219 3280"

Paul GaffneyLLB BA

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Paul Gaffney left an annotation (12 November 2009)

Quote-marks Hello

Tomorrow's the thirteenth.You should have replied by then.......

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From: Paul Gaffney

13 November 2009

Dear Sir or Madam,

Today is the thirteenth.The time alloted by the Freedom of
Information act is up.I believe I have annotated the original FOI
with some details you may find of interest.

Yours faithfully,

Paul GaffneyLLB BA

Link to this

From: Paul Gaffney

27 September 2010

Dear Ministry of Defence,
please raed the following

Technological Simulation of Hallucination
John J. McMurtrey, M. S. a and Edward A. Moore, M. D. b
Copyright 2005, 6 Jan. 2008
ABSTRACT
Background: Psychiatrists frequently evaluate complaints of remote
sound
transmission. Aim: Evidence for technologies capable of remote
sound or voice
transmission isolated to individuals is surveyed along with target
tracking capacity that
can maintain apparent psychosis. Method: Examination of government
reports,
engineering databases, the patent database post 1976, PubMed, and
the Internet for
available pertinent authentic sources. Results: Ultrasound and
radio frequency voice
transmission are described as methods to remotely isolate voice to
individuals. Accounts
of ultrasound and radio frequency energy forms used on people also
exist. Conclusion:
Evidence indicates development of technologies capable of remotely
isolating sound and
voice to an individual. Covert misuse of such technologies would
result in simulated
hallucination, which has no diagnostic recognition.
“Such a device has obvious applications in covert operations
designed to drive a target
crazy with ‘voices’ or deliver undetectable instructions to a
programmed assassin.”
--Robert O. Becker regarding microwave hearing voice transmission,
who was twice
Nobel Prize nominated for biological electromagnetic fields
research. 1
a Corresponding author. Email- [email address] Address: 903 N.
Calvert St., Baltimore MD
21202.
b Affiliated with University of Texas at San Antonio, College of
Engineering. Emailedmoorester@
gmail.com Address: 403 Terrell Rd., San Antonio, Texas 78209.
INTRODUCTION c
Medical professionals regard the perception of voice or sound,
which cannot be
heard by others nearby as hallucination excepting only tinnitus,
and deem such
phenomena as psychotic manifestations on persistent, disturbing
complaint. Though
‘hearing voices’ can involve numerous diagnoses, 2 this symptom is
often considered
characteristic in schizophrenia with 47-98% prevalence, 3 but the
symptom has reported
prevalence in dissociative identity disorder (DID) of 30-64%, 4 and
in bipolar disorder of
7-48%. 5 Patients frequently believe that such voices are
externally transmitted to them. 6
Apparently unrecognized by the psychiatric community, two
technologies have the
described capacity to remotely transmit voice or sound in an
individually isolated
manner. Considering that misuse of such technologies could simulate
hallucination and
confuse diagnosis, the available body of evidence for such capacity
is reviewed.
Herein is substantiated:
1. Development of remote ultrasound and radio frequency
technologies
for transmitting sound or voice, which can be isolated to an
individual.
2. Human tracking technologies.
3. Reports and published anecdotes of ultrasound and radio
frequency
energy use against people.
c Abbreviations: ATC = American Technology Corporation. ABR =
Auditory Brainstem Response. DID =
Dissociative Identity Disorder. FOIA = Freedom of Information Act.
Hz = cycles per second, and is an
eponym honorific abbreviation for Heinrich Rudolph Hertz. LRAD =
Long Range Acoustic Device. MHz
= Mega-Hertz denoting one million cycles per second.
2
METHODS
Literature examination by relevant terminology was performed on
PubMed,
National Technical Information Service, Google search, US and
European patent office
databases, as well as Compendex, the Wilson Web, and Inspec.
Ultrasound and
microwave bioeffects references were also cross examined for
relevance per article.
Inclusion/exclusion criteria are pertinence and authenticity.
Time series bibliometry of citations from the most recent radio
frequency hearing
review was plotted in histogram with differentiation of known
military support (Figure 1,
presently only papers in 1967, and 1975 are unexamined, now
indicated no military
support.) The significance of difference in total publication rate
was assessed by t-test d
of means for baseline publication prior to 1972 either as
considered from the 1956
citation of advertisement with microwave hearing mention or the
1961 more definitive
Frey substantiation compared with the 1973-1980 apparent
publication upslope.
Regression was plotted for the baseline with no upward trend, and
per the concerns of
single case time series analysis, 7 the 1973-1980 upslope data were
adjusted by per datum
d t – test equation:
_ _
__x_-_y____
__________
/ sx
2 sy
2
. \/ nx + ny
Where:
(The back slash-forward slash and underline combination above
represent the
square root of the denominator terms.)
_ _
x and y are the mean of the respective populations compared.
sx and sy are the standard deviations of the respective
populations.
nx and ny are the numbers of samples in the population.
3
subtraction of the mean from Frey 1961 through 1972 publication
baseline for the
presented p value (all t-tests are highly significant.)
ULTRASOUND VOICE TRANSMISSION
The loud, steady production of two different tones results in a
third tone equal to
the frequency difference between the original tones. The sounds so
created are known as
the tones of Tartini 8 who was an 18th century violinist, and
result from air non-linearity
that causes sound to scatter itself. The effect also occurs in
water for sonar generators
called parametric arrays, with the short ultrasound wavelength
permitting high directional
projection. Acoustic tones produced in air by ultrasound beams were
first reported in
1962, 9 followed by several abstract reports 10 11 12 and then had
more complete
publication. 13 Voice modulated on an ultrasound beam is caused to
peal off by another
ultrasound beam in loudspeakers for directionally projecting audio
sound, 14 15 16 17 with
mathematical prediction compared to experimental results. 18 19
Basic methods for such
speakers are described in the Audio Engineering Handbook. 20
Recently reported are
improvements in emitters, 21 and directivity. 22 Though utilized as
a term in many reports,
‘loudspeaker’ has somewhat misleading connotations for these
speakers, since virtual
point sound sources are generated within the ultrasound beams 23
without scattering
outside the beam intersection. 23 A recipient perceives this sound
projection technique
as originating within the head without directional orientation as
described from
demonstrations for an audio engineering society, 24 an engineering
news article, 25 and
Popular Science 26 as well as non-lethal weapon applications
patents.
4
An ultrasound voice transmission patent clearly focuses on
non-lethal weapon use
against crowds or as directed at an individual. 27 Communication
that is understood as an
inner voice can have powerful emotional reactions in people, “since
most cultures
attribute inner voices either as a sign of madness, or as messages
from spirits or demons.”
23 Another ultrasound voice transmission patent describes sound
production particularly
within cavities such as the ear canal. 28 An individual readily
understands communication
by the device across a noisy crowded room without discernment by
others nearby. Sound
can also be made to appear as originating from mid-air or from
surfaces by reflection.
American Technology Corporation (ATC) licensed this latter patent,
and
commercially sells their HyperSonic Sound® system, which has a
technical treatment
available 29 and a professional meeting presentation. 30 This
company also has an
acoustic non-lethal weapon called the Long Range Acoustic Device
(LRADTM) that is
deployed to the Navy, Coast Guard, Army, Marine Corps, military
prison camps, and the
US Border Patrol 31 32 as well as ground troops in Iraq and
Afghanistan. 33 An 80 %
efficacy in deterring wayward Persian Gulf vessels by the LRAD has
science news
report. 34 The device is also deployed to police departments, 24 35
36 on cruise ships, 23
and at petroleum instillations, 37 while a version of the device is
available for automatic
operation in conjunction with remote sensor security systems. 38 A
similar ultrasound
method capable of limiting sound to one person, Audio Spotlight®
has peer reviewed
publication, 23 and is marketed. Audio Spotlight press releases
indicate exhibition at
Boston’s Museum of Science, 39 the General Motors display at
Disney’s Epcot Center, 40
the Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum, and other public
venues. 41 Press
accounts detail transmission of sound to persons unaware of such
use 42 by both
5
developers, along with some description of more disturbing sound
exposure, 43 which can
include pain even with ear plugs decreasing the noise. 23 A
non-lethal weapons program
director confirms the lack of sound perception by other people
nearby on ultrasound
voice transmission. 44 Though ultrasound can pass through walls, 45
46 the encoded sound
from ultrasound speakers reflects audibly upon striking hard flat
surfaces.
MICROWAVE HEARING
Radar technicians had microwave hearing effect anecdotes in World
War II 47 48
and the late 1940’s. 49 Allan H. Frey was the first to
substantially characterize the
microwave hearing effect in a series of articles beginning in 1961,
50 51 52 yet much earlier
less defined observations in open literature by Cazzamalli of
‘radio frequency
hallucination’ 53 may well be the same effect. Subjects can hear
appropriately pulsed
microwaves at least up to thousands of feet from the transmitter.
24 Peak pulse power
largely determines loudness, though with some dependence on pulse
width. 24
Microwaves are the higher frequency portion of the radio frequency
spectrum.
Frequency is denoted in Hz, which is an abbreviated eponym to honor
radio pioneer
Heinrich Rudolph Hertz, but Hz just means cycles per second.
Frequencies relevant to
microwave hearing are in Mega-Hertz (MHz) units or one million
cycles per second, and
Giga-Hertz (GHz) units or one billion cycles per second. Though
most hearing effect
literature refers to microwave hearing, radio frequency hearing is
an appropriate term,
since the phenomenon extends below the 300 MHz microwave definition
cutoff
frequency 24 to include 2.4 MHz magnetic resonance imaging radio
frequency
generators. 54
6
Microwave hearing is the most accepted of low power microwave
effects, because
of direct perception by many microwave workers with well replicated
animal definition,
24 and numerous reviews of the phenomenon. 24 24 55 56 57 58 The
sound produced is
perceived within or near the head. 24 Microwave hearing results
from rapid
thermoelastic expansion causing sound waves within the head. 24 The
cochlea is
involved, but not the middle ear. 25 The thermoelastic effect
elicits sound within
substances with only certain materials or conditions able to emit
air conducted sound. 59
Lin extends the range of microwave hearing to frequencies into the
‘tens of gigahertz.’ 24
A review of microwave bioeffects describes “receiverless” and
“wireless” voice
transmission discovery in 1973 by Sharp and Grove, 60 e who were
then at the Walter
Reed Army Institute of Research according to a different microwave
hearing report
submission date. 61 The method was simple: negative deflections
from recorded spoken
numbers were processed to cause triggering of microwave pulses.
Upon illumination by
such verbally modulated energy, the words were understood remotely.
An Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command report
states
microwave speech transmission with applications for “camouflage,
decoy, and deception
operations” as a main rationale for a microwave exposure brain
blood flow study, which
affirms “by proper choice of pulse characteristics, intelligible
speech may be created.” 62
Between the inclusive dates given for these affirmations of
microwave hearing voice
transmission development, the total simple sound radio frequency
investigation
publication rate increased 3.7 fold, even with per datum
subtraction of any possible mean
baseline trend (t-test p < 0.02) for normal statistics on the
bibliometric time series of
e Both these researchers had then recently done classified work on
the weapons implications of the Moscow
American Embassy irradiation according to Project Bizarre FOIA
releases, see
http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/reading_room....
7
citations from the most recent radio frequency hearing review. 25
The Oskar, 1980
affirmation was published the year after the raw data historical
peak of publications for
total and military supported simple sound radio frequency hearing
reports, where for 45
years of investigation, half of citations cluster for publication
date in the decade after
1973 as given for Dr. Sharp’s account of voice transmission
discovery with the interval
having double the number of articles with military support compared
to other periods,
and apparent clustering towards the dates of interest (Figure 1).
The rapid drop in simple
sound microwave hearing publication coincides with evidence of Air
Force interest in
defining radio frequency “forced disruptive phenomenon . . . to
interrupt, degrade or
direct human central nervous system functioning.” 63 The Air Force
mentions radio
frequency acoustic phenomenon, 25 but within the simple sound
literature with expected
interest as forced disruptive phenomenon are notations of
vibration, 64 buffeting of the
head as well as a “pins and needles” sensation, 24 and petit to
grand mal seizures with
unconsciousness for 4-5 minutes 65 at altered f pulse parameters.
Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications describes applications
of remote
voice transmission as “obviously not limited to therapeutic
medicine.” 66 A Defense
Intelligence Agency review of Communist literature affirms
microwave sound and
indicates voice transmission. The report states: “Sounds and
possibly even words which
appear to be originating intracranially (within the head) can be
induced by signal
modulation at very low average power densities.” 67 Among weapon
implications are
“great potential for development into a system for disorientating
or disrupting the
behavior patterns of military or diplomatic personnel.” 25
f At presumably higher pulse parameters, but only fully specified
in the last reference.
8
The Brunkan Patent “Hearing system” is a device for verbal
microwave hearing. 68
The invention details microwave speech transmission with a
parabolic antenna remotely
illuminating the head. Complex sound and voice are built up by
patterns of bursts with a
single burst composed of tightly grouped evenly spaced pulses. The
microwave
spectrum granted by the patent is from 100 to 10,000 MHz with pulse
width from 10
nanoseconds to 1 microsecond, and bursts of such pulses lasting
from 500 nanoseconds to
100 microseconds (a nanosecond is 10 -9 or one billionth of a
second; a microsecond is 10
-6 or one millionth of a second.) The 1000 MHz preferred operation
is the optimal tissue
penetration frequency. 69 A similar German patent for remote
antenna microwave voice
transmission is also based on microwave bursts. 70 A non-remote
microwave voice
transmission patent based on microwave bursts is designed so that
the burst frequency
matches the sound frequency. 71
Microwave hearing literature confirms an ability to reproduce sound
characteristics, and aspects of these patents. Though loudness is
modulated by pulse
power, 24 72 closely spaced pulses also increase sound intensity,
73 74 or lower the
perception threshold. 24 The tonal quality of a pulse train
corresponds to pulsation
frequency, 25 75 76 and longer pulse widths produce lower frequency
sound. 24
Microwave pulse width differentially influences cat cochlear
nucleus auditory units that
are responsive to different tones 77 over sound frequencies from
931 Hz to 25.5 kHz. 78
Twin pulse separation responses 25 have at least some analogy to
human pitch
discrimination parameters. 79
Two separate devices with non-remote transducers show efficacy in
peer
reviewed publication either by independent analysis of operation,
80 81 or the developers
9
demonstrating improved speech discrimination. 82 83 Although this
latter report’s title
features electrotherapy, radio frequency hearing just previously
was considered as
electrophonic hearing 84 and a radio frequency method is stated,
while equipment
description is referred to an Air Force study. 85 This 1964 study
is the first English radio
frequency voice transmission report with improved word
discrimination for the hearing
impaired.
A 1993 classified non-lethal weapon conference demonstration of a
microwave
voice transmission device of Lockheed-Sanders manufacture is
reported by Nexus
Magazine. 86 Quoted descriptors are ‘voice synthesis’ or ‘synthetic
telepathy.’ 26 This
same year a US Department of Defense contract was awarded entitled
“Communicating
Via the Microwave Auditory Effect.” Communication initial results
are: “The feasibility
of the concept has been established” using both low and high power
systems. 87 A
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request for information on the
project met with
denial on the part of the US Air Force, on the grounds that
disclosure “could reasonably
be expected to cause damage to national security.” 88 Though the
Air Force denied FOIA
disclosure, an Air Force report elaborates such a contract’s
purpose for “the possibility of
covert suggestion and psychological direction” by “high fidelity
speech” from microwave
hearing enabling a capacity “to ‘talk’ to selected adversaries in a
fashion that would be
most disturbing to them.” 89 90
This Air Force discussion framed as ‘possibility’ is belied by
publication during
he same year as patent application for a pulse amplitude modulation
method for
implementation of such capability 91 by Air Force employees 92 93
with rights assigned to
the Air Force. FOIA releases related to the patent list “a
psychological warfare
10
communication tool” under government use, 94 state experimental
demonstration of
intelligible speech transmission, 95 and provide some description
of initial experiments. 96
This first patent was followed by another related patent, 97
neither of which evidence
knowledge of previous development or citation of the obviously
relevant Brunkan 25
patent.
Under voice to skull devices, a microwave voice transmission
non-lethal weapon
is referenced in the thesaurus of the Center for Army Lessons
Learned, which is a
military instruction website. 98 The US Navy has awarded a contract
for the development
of an aversive non-lethal weapon termed MEDUSA, and based on the
microwave
auditory effect that is to be able to focus on a single individual.
99 However, no voice
transmission is indicated for the Navy system. 26
When electromagnetic signatures of spoken words are applied to the
head at very
low field levels (1 microTorr), word choice is reported
significantly affected for related
words along the same emotional dimensions as the applied word. 100
Though inspired by
microwave hearing, this report is not of direct auditory
perception, but of subliminal
word choice influence. The authors suggest that such an influence,
even though weak
could shift the direction of group decisions in large populations,
and have previously
elaborated the possibility for more general electromagnetic
influence on populations. 101
TARGET TRACKING TECHNOLOGY
Diagnostic confusion with major psychotic states would require
target tracking for
the maintenance of isolated hearing effects on people. Common
technology utilizes the
radio frequency hearing spectrum, which encompasses cell phone, 102
103 TV, and radar
11
frequencies. 104 Since the ability to direct radiation is related
to wavelength, which
becomes shorter with increasing frequency, g microwaves are
directive in a manner
similar to light 105 except with structural penetrating ability. A
variety of methods assist
radiation localization for collimation or focusing including
masers, 106 and antennas that
are parabolic, have lens materials, 107 or are arranged in phased
array. 108 Phased array
antennae can be of small configuration with the formation and
direction of radar beams
without physical motion by precise phasing of current between array
elements for
constructive and destructive interference. 26
Jane’s Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems lists 13 target
tracking systems
specifying such capability on personnel at ranges from 4-20 km,
which are utilized by
countries around the world. 109 Automated target tracking involves
a track initiation
processor acquiring a target, while a data association filter
maintains a tracking lock on
the target 110 with this process utilized to continuously direct a
radar beam at a target for
tracking position. 111 Even a quarter century ago, specifications
for weapons fire control
designs whereby aiming was entirely determined by radar tracking
were commonly
evident with numerous radars dedicated to one weapon. 112 Radars
devoted to tracking
isolated targets are presently prominent enough to merit a few
paragraphs in a recent
science and technology encyclopedia. 113 Other components can be
directed by radar
tracking, such as a camera at a human target for commercial
security surveillance. 114
One patent describes human target tracking with automatic aiming of
electromagnetically
induced pain, now a declassified capability, 26 115 and even remote
assessment of
physiologic stress. 116
g By the relation: wavelength times frequency equals the speed of
light.
12
Movement excursions less than a frequency’s wavelength alter the
phase of a
target echo waveform as compared to the transmitted frequency.
Since waveform phase
relates to distance in wavelength, this allows radar assessment of
life by breathing and
heartbeat measurement from body surface excursions, which is
reviewed respecting
medical or rescue use, 117 and hypovolemic states are
discriminated. 118 Surroundings
without motion do not return echoes with waveform out of phase from
the transmitted
signal in contrast to living subjects, so that vital organ cycle
detection is utilized in
through wall radar discernment of humans developed for security
purposes. 119 The
capacity is evaluated as a covert polygraph for lie detection. 120
121 One system 122 for
radar visualization of humans through walls utilizing just range
radar with a moving
target indication method, has a 5 inch resolution, 123 and is
approved for sale by the US
Federal Communications Commission. 124
Patents for rescue 125 and security systems 126 with radar
detecting vital organ
motion describe the ability to distinguish individuals through
obstruction by frequency
analysis, which forms a type of “electronic fingerprint.” Besides
vital organ oscillation
from phase change contributions to the human radar signature,
another method is based
on the Doppler effect, whereby motion adds or subtracts energy to a
radar echo so that
the return signal frequency is changed in proportion to velocity.
Doppler effects produce
individual variance of human signals 127 with gait 128 and
heartbeat 129 considered as
biometric identifiers. Humans have good radar reflectance, 27 and
body parts can be
resolved by through wall imaging. 130 Human motion generated
Doppler frequencies are
regarded as a frequency spectrogram resulting from moving centers
of body and
appendage radar scattering, where just thigh height would provide
reasonably accurate
13
discrimination between males or females based on relevant biometric
distribution
(expected accuracy for sex; male – 84%, female – 91%). 131
Stationary surroundings only
return echoes at the transmitted frequency, so the Doppler effect
usefully identifies
moving targets inside structures. Other information available to
radar is the human radar
cross section, which is about one square meter, 132 but is
proportional to a target’s weight,
133 and varies with the subject’s orientation with respect to the
radar antenna even from
front versus back such that differences in radar cross section
relate to body position. 134
Further general target recognition methods are based on
polarization characteristics, and
the frequency amplitude response. 135
Target illumination tracking systems have at least microsecond
response times.
Such responses require no wide scan area to lock illumination upon
a person at
achievable speeds. Less than 1/100th of an inch in a microsecond is
traversed at 90 miles
per hour.
Battlefield human tracking specifications are not expected to
consider urban
obstruction. Radar capability through obstruction is apparent from
the optimization and
adaptation of military radar to commercial through-the-wall
surveillance development, 136
with open literature surveys or overviews available. 137 138 139
Most materials negligibly
attenuate radar at the lower microwave frequencies. High
frequencies in the millimeter
wavelengths (95 GHz = 3 mm) can provide detailed imaging of humans,
but are not
suitable for brick and concrete. 27 Though lacking in more detail,
some human image
can be obtained at frequencies as low as 10 GHz, which also has
good building material
penetration. 27
14
Raytheon’s Motion and Ranging System is battery operated, briefcase
sized, has a
100 foot range, 140 provides two dimensional tracking, and can
report range to motion of
30 targets. 141 142 Another system characterizes through wall
capability as at “any
distance.” 143 A portable, battery operated radar report states
detection of individuals
through 3 walls. 144 Other literature reports detection of
personnel through several
intervening walls, 27 or through a single brick wall 15 inches 145
and ½ meter wide (about
5 brick courses). 27 Since through-wall surveillance systems
evident in the open
literature are subject to commercial regulatory, pricing,
portability, and imaging
constraints, they cannot be regarded as the capability limit
especially regarding radars for
less economically constrained security markets or without portable
design.
ACCOUNTS OF MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND USE AGAINST HUMANS
Ultrasound behavioral influence technology use in Northern Ireland
is cited. 146
The device could focus on one person, though voice transmission is
unconfirmed. The
Americans employed the system in Vietnam, which is termed the
squawk box, while a
news report characterizes psychological effects as ‘spooky,’
annoying, and intolerable. 147
British police inventories list the specific device, though a
spokesman denied use. 148
The Long Range Acoustic Device has published descriptions of
utilization for clearing
occupants from a building to execute a search warrant, repelling a
pirate attack from a
cruise ship, and ‘drawing out snipers’ for destruction, 23 besides
acknowledged use as a
‘hailing’ device with the demonstrations and developer ‘pranks’
noted above.
The most documented citizen microwave irradiation was of peace
protesters at
Greenham Common American Air Force Base in Berkshire England, who
prompted
15
investigation of unusual symptoms 149 that fit well with
electromagnetic exposure
syndrome. 28 Radiation measurements exhibited microwaves with
symptom experience
up to a hundred times the background level, and rose sharply on
protests nearer the base.
28 That some of the women ‘heard voices’ has report. 150
Though the source is otherwise postulated, radio frequency field
measurement is
reported in the vicinity of an Australian DID case, 151 which is a
disorder with indicated
precedent for intelligence service interest and use. 152 The
radiation intensity ranged from
7 mV in an adjacent room to 35 mV next to the head. Other published
anecdotal cases
affirm microwave field measurement without strength publication.
153 154 155 A security
company advertises investigations of electromagnetic harassment
including microwave
voice transmission with field measurement. 156
DISCUSSION
Ultrasound voice transmission technology is well confirmed by peer
reviewed
literature, deployed in military 23 24 24 or police situations, 24
24 24 publicly
demonstrated in museum exhibits, 24 24 24 and for sale to the
public. 157 158 Microwave
hearing literature defines pulse parameters that elicit audition,
which would be considered
hallucination by psychiatrists on complaint of covert simple sound
transmission, and
provides a foundation for radio frequency voice transmission
citations. Peer reviewed
literature 25 25 and a government report 25 confirm non-remote
voice transmission
systems. There are four patents for remote radio frequency voice
transmission, 25 25 two
of which were developed by the US Defense Department. 26 26
Successful independent
development of such methods is indicated twice: Original successful
Army experiments
16
25 followed by increased historical density of total and military
supported simple sound
investigations that peak the year before publication (Figure 1) of
a bioeffects study citing
speech transmission as rationale, 25 and alternative news report of
device demonstration.
26 Later, the Air Force had their own initial experiments 26 that
with more development
became patents, 26 26 and successful demonstration is stated. 26
Duplicated effort is
usual to classified programs. Though there is only some publication
of microwave field
strength around victims 28 28 or measurement anecdotes, 28 28 28
with some
publications of remote radio frequency voice transmission use being
in media of variable
reliability, such reports are supported by descriptions of
non-lethal weapon applications
25 26 and designation as a weapons capability. 26 26 26 The fact is
that these accounts
or any remote harassment complaints have no adequate investigation
because medical
texts and professors teach that such claims are symptoms of mental
illness, despite
abundant indications that voice transmission and human tracking has
long enabled
feasibility for continuously isolating sound or voice to
individuals. It must be appreciated
that engineering development is often proprietary and less
published than open science,
especially in areas with covert application. Implementing microwave
hearing voice
transmission would apparently involve little more than programming
a radar tracking
beam for the necessary characteristics.
The logic in the prediction by Brzezinski h of a more controlled
and directed
society dominated by a power elite willing to use the latest modern
techniques for
influencing behavior without hindrance by liberal democratic values
is compelling. 159
Since prevalent expertise assumes that voice transmission
perception by any possible
h
National Security Advisor to President Carter.
17
victim only has basis as a psychotic symptom without reality,
serious complaints have
such disregard that the ability to bear witness in journalistic or
police investigation and
court proceeding is readily compromised. Potential targets are
multiple, and may include
anyone worth manipulation: domestic adversaries; witnesses of
improprieties; security
risks, which may only comprise classified disclosures; those prone
to committing
advantageous felonies; and even those psychologically similar to
other targets for
development or training purposes. Covert voice transmission
technology is most
applicable within the same language and culture. Security agencies
have little legal
accountability, particularly with utilization of unrecognized
technology. Legality is
readily circumvented by executive orders, (particularly declaring
an emergency
situation), which can be sealed with the prerogative only
accountable to co-equal
government branches.
Though complaint of ‘hearing voices’ is routinely diagnosed as
psychotic, 160
psychoanalytical acknowledgement of such technological capacity and
the need for new
diagnostic criteria does exist. 161 The current standard of care
severely discredits anyone
claiming such an affliction. Longstanding complaints by numerous
individuals about
remote voice transmission to the medical community 23 are too
correspondent with the
technological development herein documented to further ignore. The
rationale for civil
rights abrogation based on the presumption that such symptoms have
no plausible
external etiology requires justification by rational investigation
that is absent from
medical literature. Without adequate investigation, final diagnoses
cannot be regarded as
conclusive but must be viewed as presumptive. Undermining such
presumption are some
hallucination brain response reports that support microwave hearing
as a simulated
18
hallucination mechanism by indicating involvement of the initial
hearing pathway, which
is a promising criterion for differential diagnosis. 162
Microwave hearing is actually heard through the cochlea of the
inner ear causing
activation of associated brain nuclei resulting in the Auditory
Brainstem Response
(ABR). 163 164 165 The ABR is a validated hearing evaluation
technique for unresponsive
patients. 166 The ABR could be altered for patient indication of
voice
transmission/hallucination instead of audible tone presentation. An
ABR is not expected
to occur from endogenous hallucination that has inner speech
mis-identification as the
current leading theory.
Radio frequency field measurement in the vicinity of complainants,
especially
with attention to directional cranial localization is appropriate
with any field elevation
further characterized. Investigation of electrophysiological
deficits correspondent
between microwave bioeffects and schizophrenia 167 compared with
and without
electromagnetic shielding might provide differentiation with
existing magnetic resonance
imaging, and magnetoencephalography facilities shielded from
commercial signals, but
radar effectiveness must be proven. At least the burst-pulse
microwave voice
transmission patents are pulsed at such high frequencies that an
additional ultrasound
component is expected, 25 similar to microwave thermoacoustically
induced ultrasound
tomography. 168 Even recordings claiming an ability to capture
harassment sounds 25
have support in that condenser microphones are responsive to the
thermoacoustic effect
though as induced by a laser. 169
Considering the number of patients who complain of remote influence
and actual
authentic indications of such technology, due investigative
diligence is required to avoid
19
the appearance of ethical negligence in remuneration for
unsubstantiated opinion that
violates basic human rights. The ambiguity of diagnostic
supposition is supported by
extensive correlations of microwave bioeffects with reported
schizophrenia symptoms
other than ’voices,’ which includes: short-term and spatial memory
deficit, time
estimation changes, deficits in sequencing, coordination deficit,
numerous
electrophysiological changes, startle decrease, neurotransmitter
changes, hormone
alterations, immune alterations, mitochondria deficits, lipid
phosphorylation decrease,
lipid peroxidation, deleterious histological change in disease
reduced brain areas,
activation of hallucination involved brain areas, and ocular
disease. 28 Even the most
apparently bizarre of Schneiderian symptoms may have basis in that
recent EEG analysis
studies confirm and extend the feasibility of thought reading,
which was reported initially
by a 1975 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency study, and
there are references to
‘remote EEG’ microwave methods. 170
20
Radio Frequency Hearing Articles per Year
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1956
1959
1962
1965
1968
1971
1974
1977
1980
1983
1986
1989
1992
1995
1998
2001
Year
Article Quantity
Military Support Acknowledged No Military Support Acknowledged
Figure 1. Histogram of article quantity per year for Elder and
Chou, 2003 25 radio frequency auditory
response review citations. Simple sound radio frequency hearing
publications increase on and after the
date given (1973) for Dr. Sharp’s account of successful microwave
hearing voice transmission for total and
military supported investigations. Maximal quantities for each
category occur the year before the Oskar,
1980 Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command study
affirms microwave hearing
speech transmission as a study rationale. Acknowledgement of
military support in prior or post periods are
half the rate that occurs for investigations dated from 1973
through 1983, wherein 45 % of these studies
acknowledge military support. Though some military supported
reports originated from naval laboratories,
the primary military funding source was the Office of Naval
Research with only one study having
additional Army funding contribution, and another study solely Air
Force funded. Note the relative lack of
publications during the O’Loughlin and Loree patent period of
development (1996-2001).
Acknowledgements: Thanks are given to John Allman for financially
supporting an
initial draft and Alfredo Julio Nieto Centeno for encouraging
donations. Thanks are also
given to God for inspiration, Sharon Weinberger for the Air Force
patent FOIA releases,
as well as the suggestions of Dr. Paul Canner and Dr. Allen Barker.
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Thisarticleshows such weapons are feasible and would I beileve
constiutue torture.

Yours faithfully,

Paul GaffneyLLB BA

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