Amended FOI re:UK/US use of weapons I previously gave the misnomer 'Voice of God 'weapon systems

Paul Gaffney made this Freedom of Information request to Ministry of Defence

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Dear Sir or Madam,

I have read that that the US forces has experimented with the use of such weapons (...microwave weapons,etc)in Afghanistan/Iraq .I am writing to enquire
1)if this is true,
2)whether UK forces have used them, and further
3))if the use of such weapons is legal or if the opposite is trued and such being the should be investigated and referred to instiution such as International Criminal Court

Yours faithfully,

Paul Gaffney LLB BA

Paul Gaffney left an annotation ()

I have copied in the following e-mail.

HENNESSY, Mike to me
show details Oct 16 (5 days ago)

Dear Mr Gaffney,

The Chairman of the Committee, James Arbuthnot MP, has asked me to respond to your e-mail of 14 October concerning microwave weapons.

The Committee will shortly be undertaking its inquiry into defence equipment: Members will be free to raise whatever issues they wish to, and I am sure that if any share your concerns that inquiry will provide them with the opportunity to ask the MoD relevant questions.

Yours Sincerely,

Mike Hennessy

Michael Hennessy
Clerk
Defence Committee
House of Commons
London SW1A 0AA
Tel: 020 7219 3280

Paul Gaffney LLB BA

Dear Ministry of Defence,
This took one minute to cut and past...possibly I'm breaching some copyright law but it's illuminating
isn't it?I also changed its title to 'Voice of God Weapon'

-'Voice of God Weapons' and the technology involved

John J. McMurtrey, M. S.,[a] Copyright 2003, 6 Apr. 2005[b]

Co-authorship is negotiable towards professional publication in an NLM indexed journal, Email- [email address]

ABSTRACT

Inner voice transmission development by ultrasound and microwave technique is reviewed as well as target tracking literature. References recognizing behavioral influence technologies are surveyed along with reported instances of the use of microwave and ultrasound energy forms on people. Many aspects of the considered literature directly contradict professional presumptions, particularly within the psychological and psychiatric communities.

INTRODUCTION

People discerning remote manipulation corresponding to technology capable of such influence have formed protest organizations across the world. [1] [2] [3] [4] Educated society is uninformed regarding authentic documentation of the development and existence of these technologies, and is without appreciation of the hazard. Complaint of ‘hearing voices’ and perception of other remote manipulation must receive appropriate scientific and legal investigation with protection. Professional awareness is virtually absent with eminent texts and opinion being presumptive, without appraisal of the evidence.

Herein is substantiated:

1. The development of remote wireless ultrasound and microwave internal voice transmission.

2. Human tracking technologies.

3. References recognizing behavioral influence capabilities and the use of such technologies against humans.

ULTRASOUND VOICE TRANSMISSION

Because of conducting medium non-linearity, sound can be scattered by sounds of different frequencies, which produces entirely new tones, and this was originally observed in air as the Tartini tones during the eighteenth century. [5] The same phenomenon occurs for ultrasound sonar systems called parametric arrays in a manner that is highly directional. Mathematical basis for such sonar effects were developed, which predicted the generation of sound waves that are of audible low frequencies. [6] [7] [8] A subsequent more general and complete analysis predicted not only simple tones, but an ‘envelope’ of modulated low frequency sound, which could encompass voice within the hearing range. [9] Despite rumors of failed classified air experiments, [10] abstract reports of air generated acoustic tones by parametric array ultrasound beams began appearing, [11] [12] [13] and then had more complete publication, [14] though unrecognized was an earlier, less extensive report. [15] This ability to produce sound is utilized to construct loudspeakers for directionally projecting audio sound, [16] which have further characterization [17] with sound modulation improvement, [18] and mathematical prediction compared to experimental results. [19] [20] Basic methods for such speakers are described in the Audio Engineering Handbook. [21] The connotation of ‘loudspeaker’ is somewhat misleading as a term for these speakers, since virtual point sources of sound are generated within the ultrasound beams [22] without scattering outside the beam intersection. 15 Recently parametric array emitter [23] and directivity [24] improvement, as well as less cumbersome mathematical descriptions for circular [25] or rectangular sources [26] are reported. These sound projection techniques are internally perceived by a recipient without directional orientation as described from demonstrations, and patents for non-lethal weapon applications.

Lowrey patent # 6052336 “Apparatus and method of broadcasting audible sound using ultrasonic sound as a carrier” clearly focuses on non-lethal weapon application against crowds or as directed at an individual. [27] Communication is understood as an inner voice with loss of the directional quality of sound perception. “Since most cultures attribute inner voices either as a sign of madness, or as messages from spirits or demons, both of which . . . evoke powerful emotional reactions”, quotes the effect on people. Replaying speech, with a delay impedes talking and causes stuttering. Normal brain wave patterns can be changed (or entrained), which “may cause temporary incapacitation, intense feelings of discomfort.” Entrainment technique is detailed by Monroe Patent # 5356368 “Method of and apparatus for inducing desired states of consciousness”, as accomplished by an auditory replication of brainwave patterns to entrain the EEG. [28] Interstate Industries licensed this patent.

The Norris patent # 5889870 “Acoustic heterodyne device and method” produces sound particularly within cavities such as the ear canal. [29] An individual readily understands communication across a noisy crowed room without nearby discernment. Sound can also be produced from mid-air or as reflecting from surfaces.

American Technology Corporation (ATC) licensed this latter patent, and commercially sells their HyperSonic Sound® system, which has a technical treatment available 10 and been presented at a professional meeting. [30] This company also has an acoustic non-lethal weapons system [31] called the Long Range Acoustic Device (LRADTM). The LRAD is being integrated into the Navy’s radar situational awareness surveillance systems, accounts for 60% of military sales, [32] and has a reported 80 % efficacy in deterring wayward Persian Gulf vessels. [33] Besides the Navy the device is also deployed to the Army, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps [34] as well as ground troops in Iraq [35] [36] [37] and Afghanistan. [38] [39] The Miami police used the LRAD for the free trade conference, [40] while the New York Police obtained it for the Republican Convention. 33 [41] The inner nature of sound perception is described from demonstrations for the Audio Engineering Society, [42] an engineering news article, [43] and Popular Science. [44] Some description of more obnoxious sound effects is available. [45] A similar ultrasound method capable of limiting sound to one person, Audio Spotlight® has peer reviewed publication,[46] and is marketed. The Audio Spotlight has had exhibition at Boston’s Museum of Science, [47] the General Motors display at Disney’s Epcot Center, [48] the Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum, and other public venues. [49] The American Technology Corporation and Audio Spotlight devices feature in science news and technology articles. [50] [51] [52] [53] A non-lethal weapons program director confirms the lack of nearby discernment on ultrasound voice transmission. [54] Other acoustic influence methods may utilize ultrasound. [55] [c]

MICROWAVE HEARING

There are early references to “radiofrequency hallucination” [56] and of reaction to radio wave energy [57] [58] by Italian authors that may have observed radio frequency hearing phenomena, but the observations were poorly characterized, at least in available English publications. However sound perception was known through radar technicians in World War II [59] [60] and the late 1940’s, [61] who had microwave hearing effect anecdotes. Though most literature on the hearing effect refers to microwave hearing, the phenomenon extends below microwave frequencies, and radio frequency hearing is also an appropriate term. 60 Allan H. Frey was the first to substantially characterize the microwave hearing effect in a series of articles beginning in 1961. [62] [63] Subjects can hear appropriately pulsed microwaves at least up to thousands of feet from the transmitter. [64] Transmitter parameters above those producing the effect result in a severe buffeting of the head, while parameters below the effect induce a pins and needles sensation. Peak power is the major determinant of loudness, though there is some dependence on pulse width. 63 Pulse modulation appears to influence pitch and timbre. Microwave hearing is described as perceived within or near the head. 59 The hearing effect can be produced from radio frequency components of magnetic resonance scanners. [65]

Direct microwave hearing experience by many microwave workers, and the phenomenon’s well replicated animal definition makes this the most accepted of low power microwave effects. 61 Review of human and animal microwave hearing confirmation by independent investigators establishes validity. 58 59 60 [66] [67] [68] [69] Designs for scaring birds away from aircraft or other hazards by microwave hearing [70] and induction of vertigo [71] exist. [72]

While working for the Advanced Research Projects Agency at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Sharp and Grove discovered “receiverless” and “wireless” voice transmission. [73] Their method was simple: the negative deflections of voiceprints from recorded spoken numbers were caused to trigger microwave pulses. Upon illumination by such verbally modulated energy, the words were understood remotely. The discovery’s applications are “obviously not limited to therapeutic medicine” according to James C. Lin in Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications. [74]

A Defense Intelligence Agency Communist literature review affirms microwave sound and indicates voice transmission. The report states: “Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating intracranially (within the head) can be induced by signal modulation at very low average power densities.” [75] Among weapon implications are “great potential for development into a system for disorientating or disrupting the behavior patterns of military or diplomatic personnel.” An Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command report affirms microwave speech transmission with applications of “camouflage, decoy, and deception operations.” [76] “One decoy and deception concept presently being considered is to remotely create noise in the heads of personnel by exposing them to low power, pulsed microwaves . . . By proper choice of pulse characteristics, intelligible speech may be created” quotes the report.

The Brunkan Patent # 4877027 “Hearing system” is a device for verbal microwave hearing. [77] The invention converts speech with remote introduction into the head by parabolic antenna. The microwave spectrum granted by the patent is from 100 to 10,000 MHz (0.1-10 GHz) with pulse width from 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond, and bursts of such pulses lasting from 500 nanoseconds to 100 microseconds. Preferred operation is at 1000 MHz, which is the frequency of optimal tissue penetration. [78] Bursts of narrowly grouped, evenly spaced pulses determine sound intensity by their amount per unit time. A similar German patent for remote antenna microwave voice transmission is also based on microwave bursts. [79] A microwave voice transmission patent with a non-remote transducer that is based on microwave bursts is “designed in such a way that the burst frequencies are at least virtually equal to the sound frequencies of the sounds picked up by the microphone.” [80]

Microwave hearing literature confirms an ability to reproduce sound characteristics, and aspects of these patents. Though loudness is modulated by pulse power, 63 [81] closely spaced pulses also increase sound intensity, [82] [83] or lower the perception threshold. 65 Pulse width affects tonal quality with longer pulses producing lower frequency sound. 59 Microwave pulse width differentially influences cat cochlear nucleus auditory units that are responsive to different tones [84] over sound frequencies from 931 Hz to 25.5 kHz. [85] The responses dependent on the separation of twin pulses 85 have at least some analogy to the parameters of human pitch discrimination. [86] Lin extends the range of microwave hearing to frequencies into the ‘tens of gigahertz.’ 59

There are numerous patents for microwave voice transmission with non-remote transducers [87] with one based on multiple microwave frequencies. [88] The first inventor of non-remote radio frequency voice transmission had a patent held up for five years by a Defense Intelligence Agency secrecy order, [89] but the device is now for sale over the internet as the Neurophone. [90] [91] Two separate devices with non-remote transducers show efficacy in peer reviewed publication either by independent analysis of operation, [92] [93] [94] or the developers demonstrating improved speech discrimination. [95] [96] Although this latter report’s title features electrotherapy, radio frequency hearing had just previously been considered as electrophonic hearing, [97] with the report stating a radio frequency method, while referring equipment description to an Air Force Systems Command commissioned study. [98] This 1964 Air Force study is the first report of radio frequency voice transmission with improved word discrimination in 9 hearing impaired patients.

Descriptions in some of the patents attribute microwave hearing to direct neural influence. However in review, the most accepted mechanism is by thermoelastic expansion, which results in sound waves 67 that most likely induces bone conducted hearing. The cochlea does appear to be involved, but not the middle ear. 69

“Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect” is the title of a small business contract for the Department of Defense. Communication initial results are: “The feasibility of the concept has been established” using both low and high power systems. [99] A Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request as to the project’s final outcome met with denial on the part of the Air Force, on the grounds that disclosure “could reasonably be expected to cause damage to national security.” [100] Though the Air Force denied this FOIA disclosure, such a contract’s purpose is elaborated by the Air Force’s “New World Vistas” report: “It would also appear possible to create high fidelity speech in the human body, raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction . . . . If a pulse stream is used, it should be possible to create an internal acoustic field in the 5-15 kilohertz range, which is audible. Thus it may be possible to ‘talk’ to selected adversaries in a fashion that would be most disturbing to them.” [101] [102] Means to actualize such communication ‘possibility’ is evident in patents [103] [104] assigned to the Air Force without royalty payment. These patents describe demodulation of speech at the head of a recipient without a proximate emitter, and no beneficial use presumed. The process involves amplitude modulation where the carrier wave’s influence is fully suppressed, high frequency speech components are filtered, and further distortion preventing processing. The inventors are Air Force employees who have received awards from the Directed Energy Directorate, apparently both for assistance in developing the millimeter wave area denial system later discussed. [105] [106] Robert O. Becker, whose eminence was enough to have been twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in biological electromagnetic fields research, is explicit regarding clandestine use of radio frequency voice transmission: “Such a device has obvious applications in covert operations designed to drive a target crazy with “voices” or deliver undetectable instructions to a programmed assassin.” [107]

For years the Center for Army Lessons Learned acknowledged microwave hearing voice transmission as a non-lethal weapon in a 'voice to skull devices' weapons thesaurus entry, but this entry was excluded subsequent to request for congressional investigation of such development, and any implementation or misuse thereof. [108] [d] An article from a magazine that publishes notably non-mainstream views details microwave inner voice device demonstration by Dr. Dave Morgan at a 1993 classified Johns Hopkins sponsored non-lethal weapon conference, manufacture by Lockheed-Sanders, and implies use by the CIA, who call the process ‘voice synthesis’ or ‘synthetic telepathy.’ [109]

When electromagnetic signatures of spoken words are applied to the head at very low field levels (1 microTorr), word choice is significantly affected along the same emotional dimensions as the applied word. [110] Though inspired by microwave hearing, this report is not of direct auditory perception. The author suggests that such an influence, even though weak, could shift the direction of group decisions in large populations, and has previously elaborated on the possibility of less specific electromagnetic influence on populations. [111]

TARGET TRACKING TECHNOLOGY

The maintenance of isolated hearing effects on people requires obstacle penetration and target tracking. Internal voice capable energy forms penetrate obstruction and can be localized. Sound transmission through enclosures is a common experience. Human tracking ability is not nearly as apparent for ultrasound as for microwave radar, but ultrasound is being developed to discern movement through walls.[112] [113] [114] Though ultrasound is unnoticed even at high intensity and can pass through walls, a significant portion of the encoded sound from ultrasound speakers reflects audibly upon striking hard flat surfaces.

Common technology utilizes the radio frequency hearing spectrum, which encompasses cell phone, [115] [116] TV, and radar frequencies. [117] A variety of antennae localize the structurally penetrating radiation with collimation or focusing. [118] [119] The Luneburg lens emits parallel rays and has over 50 years utilization.[120] Masers are another method of collimation. [121]

Military radar systems listing human tracking capability include: Advanced Radar Surveillance System (ARSS-1) by Telephonics; [122] Beagle Portable Ground Surveillance Radar by Pro Patria; [123] AN/PPS-5D Man-Portable Battlefield Surveillance Radar by Syracuse Research Corp.; [124] Squire LPI Ground Surveillance Radar by MSSC Corp.; [125] and Manportable Surveillance and Target Acquisition Radar (MSTAR) by Systems & Electronics, Inc., [126] which have ranges from 7-12 km for personnel tracking. Some of these internet examinable references extend their capability from that listed in the 2000-2001 Jane’s Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems, which lists 13 target acquisition or tracking systems specifying such capability on personnel, purchased by militaries of some 27 countries. [127] Besides Russian manufacture there are also East European producers of such systems. 127 [128]

The most widely deployed system is the Rasit ground surveillance radar by Thomson CSF AIRSYS, which lists 20 km as 90% probability of detection for humans.127 Earlier systems have been in use since the Vietnam War. [129] Basic operation of these systems involves a track initiation processor acquiring a target, while a data association filter maintains a tracking lock on the target. [130] The above designs feature infantry portability or mobile forward deployment, and cannot be regarded as the limit of capability, since larger radars have a range of 100 miles, [131] though lacking human tracking specification.

A quarter of a century ago, Jane’s Weapon Systems listed some 32 weapons fire control designs whereby aiming was entirely determined by radar tracking data with at least 10 systems primarily designed for control of one weapon system. [132] Eight weapons guidance systems utilized microwave target illumination by a dedicated surface beam (called semi-active homing). 132 Sensors for more recent active guidance systems also illuminate targets for both laser [133] microwave radar [134] [135] units that are compact enough to be onboard the missile, and so inexpensive as to be disposable with the weapon. Target illumination tracking systems have nanosecond to microsecond response times. Such responses do not require a wide scan area to lock illumination upon a person at achievable speeds. At 90 miles per hour an auto travels less than 1/100 of an inch in a microsecond.

Rowan Patent # 4893815 “Interactive transector device commercial and military grade” describes the acquisition, locking onto, and tracking of human targets. [136] Stated therein: “Potentially dangerous individuals can be efficiently subdued, apprehended and appropriately detained.” The capability of “isolating suspected terrorists from their hostages . . . or individuals within a group without affecting other members of the group” is stated. Laser, radar, infrared, and acoustic sensor fusion is utilized to identify, seek, and locate targets. Locking illumination upon the target until weapons engagement accomplishes tracking. Among available non-lethal weapons is an incapacitating electromagnetic painful pulse. Tracking data automatically aims weapons, and the system even provides remote physiological stress assessment during attack.

Microwave methods of assessing life by detecting breathing and heartbeat rates had full description in 1967, [137] and are reviewed respecting medical and possible rescue use. [138] The technique can differentiate hypovolemic from normal rabbits. [139] The US Military has an interest in a non-contact vital signs monitor. [140] The capacity is evaluated for obtaining covert polygraph information for lie detection. [141] [142] [143]

Hablov Patent # 5448501 “Electronic life detection system” describes radar that detects vital organ motion, and distinguishes individuals through obstruction. [144] Therein is stated: “the modulated component of the reflected microwave signal . . . subjected to frequency analysis . . . forms a type of “electronic fingerprint“ of the living being with characteristic features, which . . . permits a distinction between different living beings.” Though this patent applies to trapped victim rescue, another Hablov et. al. Patent # 5530429 “Electronic surveillance system” detects interlopers with security emphasis. [145] Individual variance of human radar signatures is otherwise known [146] than these patents, and gait [147] [148] or heartbeat [149] [150] have consideration as biometric identifiers.

Battlefield human tracking specifications are not expected to consider obstruction. Some indication of radar capability through obstruction can be gleaned from the adaptation of military technology to through-wall surveillance, [151] which has been spurred by declassifications of the Clinton administration, and Homeland Security initiatives. Surveys or overviews of through-the-wall radar open literature are available.[152] [153] [154] Most materials negligibly attenuate radar at the lower microwave frequencies. High frequencies in the millimeter wavelengths (95 GHz =3 mm) can provide detailed imaging of humans, but are not suitable for brick and concrete. 152 Though without detail, some human image can be obtained at frequencies as low as 10 GHz, which also has good building material penetration. 152 Image resolution is enhanced by increased antenna aperture, [155] which can be synthetic without dependence on a single antenna’s size. [156] Humans are actually emissive of millimeter wavelengths,[157] and otherwise have good reflectance, 154 with a radar cross section of one square meter, [158] which approximates the two dimensional profile. Human emmissivity at millimeter wavelengths even allows some measure of passive detection through walls, 152 though weapons detection through clothing is most developed. [159] [160]

Many through-the-wall radars simply detect gross motion, a frequent state of awake humans. Raytheon’s Enhanced Motion and Ranging System is battery operated, briefcase sized, lists maximum range as 100 feet, provides two dimensional tracking, and can report range to motion of up to 16 targets. [161] [162] [163] Defense Research and Development Canada of their Defense Department commissioned a consulting company to examine the feasibility of constructing an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) through-the-wall radar from off the shelf components. [164] Subsequent demonstrations show that such systems can locate a moving target within a building from 60 meters away with methods being refined to provide building layout, and denote non-moving targets. [165] UWB radars decrease interference with commercial signals, [166] and makes radar utilization more difficult to detect. A portable, battery operated radar can detect an individual through 3 walls. [167] Another UWB radar detects personnel through several intervening walls, and an extended range system can track human targets in excess of 1000 feet, with tracking data used to point a camera in the target direction. [168]

Some through-the-wall surveillance (TWS) radars have considerable commercial development. Fullerton et al. Patent # 6400307 “System and method for intrusion detection using a time domain radar array” [169] is licensed to Time Domain, [170] which has Federal Communications Commission approval for sale of 2,500 of it’s RadarVision units in the US. [171] [172] RadarVision is marketed internationally, [173] has police or fire fighter target markets, [174] and the company is developing a SoldierVision unit for the US Army. [175] [176] Georgia Tech is developing their Radar Flashlight for security and rescue applications. [177] [178] Both of these TWS systems operate by detecting vital organ motion, being battery operated, highly compact (10 pounds or less) models for the widest commercial potential, thus limiting range. RadarVision detects within 30 feet, while Radar Flashlight has a 10 foot range.

Other commercial TWS system developers are Patriot Scientific Corporation, [179] AKELA, Inc., [180] SRI International, [181] and Hughes Missile Systems Co. 131 Radar detection software for personal computer display is sold. [182] A Russian report describes an ability to record the frequency spectrum of speech besides heartbeat and respiration.[183] Since through-wall surveillance systems evident in the open literature are subject to commercial regulatory, pricing, portability, imaging, and multiple subject observation constraints, they cannot be regarded as the limit of capability especially regarding radars for less economically constrained security markets or not featuring portable design.

RECOGNITION OF BEHAVIORAL INFLUENCE TECHNOLOGIES

Though not necessarily only involving voice transmission, references to behavioral influence weapons by government bodies and international organizations are numerous. Negotiation submissions to the United Nations Committee on Disarmament affirm the reality of microwave weapon nervous system effects. [184] European Parliament passage of resolutions calling for conventions regulating non-lethal weapons and the banning of “weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings” [185] includes neuro-influence capability. [186] A resolution relates to the US High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP), which can have environmental consequences, and although utilizing high frequency, ionospheric extra low frequency (ELF) emanation results. Since ELF is within brain wave frequencies the project has capacity to influence whole populations. 111 [187] President Carter’s National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, predicted development of such capacity. [188] A US draft law prohibiting land, sea, or space-based weapons using electromagnetic, psychotronic (behavioral influence), and sound technologies “directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control” has not yet passed. [189] Use of electromagnetic devices against people or electronics in Michigan is a serious felony. [190] Russian electromagnetic standards are nearly 1000 times lower than the West, so their weapon law forbidding electromagnetic weapons exceeding Health Department parameters is strict. [191] A Russian draft law explicitly references behavioral influence non-lethal weapons, and development in several countries. [192] Resolutions by the International Union of Radio Science recognize criminal use of electromagnetic technology, particularly against infrastructure. [193]

An Israeli general in charge of military research and development acknowledged investment in “mind control” technology by Israel. [194] CNN has also reported regular use of microwaves against Palestinians as sourced form a medical engineer, and that the US Defense Department has contingency plans to use electromagnetic weapons against terrorists. [195] The same reference quotes an ex-intelligence agent as stating “The US Government has an electronic device which could implant thoughts in people” in a different program interview. Electromagnetic behavioral manipulation effects have had report on various Discovery cable channel programs, and suspicion of such technology use on then President Nixon was expressed on Larry King Live, which reiterated congressional testimony. [196] A statement by General John Jumpers about making enemies hear and believe things that don’t exist would include inner voice technology. [197]

The US Department of Defense has declassified a millimeter wavelength area denial weapon. [198] The prototype weapon is vehicle mounted, and considered a non-lethal weapon. 102 [199] The device produces a beam that causes a burning sensation, that is stopped by switching off the transmitter, or escape from the beam. [200] Development of this device is in the advanced stages, and deployment to Iraq is reported expected in 2005. [201]

Besides confirming ultrasound internal voice capability, 54 non-lethal weapons treatments note high powered microwave impulse disruption of brain waves with functional alteration [202] including unconsciousness, [203] [204] [205] which is confirmed in experimental animals. [206] Non-lethal weapon reviews also mention ‘mind control’ development and testing. [207] [208] Terms utilized in the latter references indicate subliminal messaging, particularly a Russian developed technique called psycho-correction, [209] the utilization of which was considered against David Koresh of the Waco, Texas Branch Davidian incident. [210] [211] [212] An American system in the previous Army thesaurus reference called Silent Sounds 73 [213] [e] also utilizes subliminal messaging, and was utilized in the 1991 Iraq War according to the company founder, [214] and British news reports. [215] A system based on the same technology is for sale on the Internet. 92 Silent Sounds also has sophisticated brainwave entrainment by “emotional clustering” capability. 214 [216] Subliminal messaging is utilized in retail stores for theft prevention. [217] [218] Although the Federal Communications Commission reports few complaints of subliminal messaging in broadcasts, 217 the technique was most recently utilized in a 2000 US presidential political advertisement, [219] and is reportedly rampant within Russian television. [220]

MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND USE AGAINST HUMANS

The microwave irradiation of the American Embassy in Moscow received little publicity until the winter of 1976 instillation of protective screening, but irradiation was known since 1953. [221] The irradiation was directional from nearby buildings with pulsation detected. Complaint to the Soviets had no avail, but the signals disappeared in January 1979 “reportedly as a result of a fire in one or more of the buildings,” [222] though there was recurrence in 1988. [223] Psychiatric cases occurred during the exposure period, but no epidemiologic relationship was revealed with fully a quarter of the medical records unavailable, and comparison with other Soviet Bloc posts. 222 Although significant results matched the Soviet recognized neurotic syndrome, [224] these were dismissed as subjective symptoms. Professional publications further detail some of these flaws, [225] along with charges of government cover-up, particularly respecting cancer cases. [226] The CIA had Dr. Milton Zaret review Soviet medical microwave literature to determine the purpose of the irradiation. He concluded the Russians “believed the beam would modify the behavior of the personnel.” [227] In 1976 the post was declared unhealthful and pay raised 20%. [228]

The most documented citizen microwave irradiation was of peace protesters at Greenham Common American Air Force Base in Berkshire England, who prompted investigation of unusual symptoms. [229] Radiation measurements exhibited microwaves with symptom experience up to a hundred times the background level, and rose sharply on protests nearer the base. 223 Symptoms became pronounced on cruise missile transport, a protest focus. 223 Recorded were wide ranging complaints: skin burns; ‘severe’ headaches; drowsiness; temporary paralysis; incoordinated speech; two late (5 mos.) spontaneous abortions; an apparent circulatory failure; and unlike usual menstrual synchronization, irregular or postmenopausal menstruation. The symptom complex fits well with electromagnetic exposure syndrome. 223 It is also reported that some of the women ‘heard voices.’ [230] The base closed finally in 1991.

Measurement of non-ionizing radiation fields in the vicinity of an Australian victim is described. [231] The intensity ranged from 7 mV in an adjacent room to 35 mV next to the head. Criminal microwave directed energy weapon use is reported in Germany [232] having similarity of circumstances, complaints, and symptoms in a number of cases, with microwave field measurement excluding the usual sources (cell phone towers, etc.) in at least one case. [233] Other anecdotal cases affirm microwave field measurement without strength publication. 196 [234] [235] A security company advertises investigations of electromagnetic harassment including microwave voice transmission with field measurement. [236] Victims have asserted an ability to record harassment effects. Though the evidence for recording microwave harassment effects is inconclusive and only slightly more than anecdotal, condenser microphones are responsive to the thermo-acoustic mechanism, and other microphone design types have elements that are similar to thermo-acoustic responsive situations. [237]

Ultrasound behavioral influence technology use in Northern Ireland is cited. 204 The device could focus on one person and utilized ultrasound like the previous discussed patents, though voice transmission is unconfirmed. It was employed in Vietnam by the Americans, and is known as the squawk box. Psychological effects are summarized as ‘spooky.’ More detail by a defense journalist is quoted: “When the two frequencies mix in the human ear they become intolerable. Some people exposed to the device are said to feel giddy or nauseous and in extreme cases they faint. Most people are intensely annoyed by the device and have a compelling wish to be somewhere else.” [238] British police inventories list the specific device, though a spokesman denied use. 223

Sophisticated behavioral influence capability is confirmed by ex-intelligence officers. Julianne McKinney, Director of The National Security Alumni Electronic Surveillance Project has conducted a study of victim cases. This is a largely classified employee victim study with internal voice transmission avowal. [239]

DISCUSSION

Ultrasound voice transmission technology is well confirmed by peer reviewed literature, deployed in military 35 36 37 38 or police situations, 33 40 41 publicly demonstrated in museum exhibits, 47 48 49 and for sale to the public. [240] [241] Microwave internal voice transmission citations rest on a solid foundation of microwave hearing literature, with confirmation in peer reviewed literature as well as a government report for non-remote transducer systems, 95 97 99 and a further such device for sale. 92 There are four patents for remote radio frequency voice transmission, 78 80 two of which were developed by the US Defense Department 104 105 as well as additional references affirming successful development. 74 77 100 Though there is only some publication of microwave field strength around victims 223 231 or measurement anecdotes, 196 234 235 with such publication to remote radio frequency voice transmission use being in media of less respected reliability, such reports are supported by descriptions of non-lethal weapon applications 76 103 and references indicating weapons. 73 109 The existence of numerous systems capable of tracking humans, has long demonstrated the feasibility of constructing devices capable of producing internal voice continuously in isolated individuals. To deny such technological capability in the face of extensive complaint is willfully to ignore documented development of the relevant technologies and engineering competence for complete integration. It must be appreciated that engineering development is often proprietary and less published than open science, especially in areas with covert application. Even the most prejudiced skeptic, who would honestly consider the relevant literature, would have to concede that such capacity has had development. The fact is that such complaints have had no adequate investigation.

The logic in the prediction by Brzezinski [f] of the appearance of a more controlled and directed society dominated by a power elite willing to use the latest modern techniques for influencing behavior without hindrance by liberal democratic values is compelling. 188 Since those supposedly expert regard a victim’s perceptions as psychotic, all complaints are disregarded, much less capability to bear witness. Potential targets are multiple, and may include anyone worth neutralization: domestic adversaries; security risks, which may only comprise classified disclosures; witnesses of improprieties; those prone to committing advantageous felonies; and even those psychologically similar to target groups for development purposes. Internal voice technology is most applicable within the same language and culture. Security agencies have little legal accountability, particularly with utilization of unrecognized technology. Legality is readily circumvented by executive orders, (particularly declaration of a crisis or emergency situation), which can be sealed, and this prerogative is only accountable to co-equal branches of government.

Most complainants allege public sector involvement or sub-contracted private companies. [242] Remote behavioral influence research has long been funded by the US, 108 with evidence of inner voice transmission development 31 74 77 78 80 100 104 105 and weapons,34 35 36 37 54 73 109 though denying on national security grounds project results 101 and even foreign literature analyses. [243] Some 30 countries evidence active behavioral influence weapon research. [244]

Leaders of victim movements for investigation and protest have written presentable treatments from the East European 234 235 [245] and victim 196 perspectives, but while there has been some psychoanalytical acknowledgement, [246] no concise treatment is published in mainstream media. Current medical awareness ensures effective neutralization of the afflicted, though not all those affected are stigmatized. However phenomena of ‘hearing voices’, or perception of remote manipulation, when recounted to health professionals results in various prejudicial diagnoses, [247] [248] totally without investigation. The longstanding disregard for people with such symptoms that give presumed rationale for civil rights abrogation must be justified by adequate investigation, which is not apparent in medical scholarship. Mandatory is determination of relevant fields around complainants. Professional opinions formed without excluding these technologies are negligent. Such diagnosis must be regarded as presumptive.

Longstanding complaints by numerous victims about remote voice transmission to the medical community [249] are too correspondent to the technologic development herein documented to further ignore. The fact that microwave bioeffects have extensive correlation with reported symptoms of major psychosis other than ’voices,’ [250] further substantiates the ambiguity of diagnostic supposition. All of society should be disturbed at the prospect of remote inner voice induction, since the unaware subject would perceive such voices as his own natural thought, without complaint provoking assault. Even complaints of ‘mind reading’ by some victims perceiving such intrusion has basis in that recent EEG analysis studies confirm and extend the feasibility of thought reading, which was reported initially by a 1975 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency study, and there are references to ‘remote EEG’ microwave methods. [251]

Acknowledgements: Thanks are given to God for inspiration, and a benefactor of Christians Against Mental Slavery for financial support (website http://www.slavery.org.uk .) There is gratitude also to Dr. Paul Canner, and Dr. Allen Barker for their suggestions.

All patents are freely printable from the U. S. Patent Office website or at esp@cenet.

Designated internet urls are not restricted as to database.

REFERENCES

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[a] Address: 903 N. Calvert St., Baltimore MD 21202. Email- [email address] Phone- 410-539-5140.

[b] Financial contribution to this article was made by fellow members of Christians Against Mental Slavery with website http://www.slavery.org.uk/ .

[c] Loos Patent # 6017302 “Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous system” can “cause relaxation, drowsiness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near ½ Hz used. The effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include slowing of certain cortical processes, sleepiness, and disorientation.”

[d] Vide infra for discussion of the analogously listed “Silent Sound” device in this reference.

[e] Also called S-quad, Silent Sounds, Inc. licensed Lowery Patent #5159703 “Silent subliminal presentation system”, also has advanced brain wave entrainment technology with several classified patents. (See http://www.megabrain.com/eeg.htm and http://www.megabrain.com/patent.htm accessed 8/4/04) Unessential is individual direction, but possible by ultrasound.

[f] National Security Advisor to President Carter.

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Yours faithfully,

Paul Gaffney

Dear Ministry of Defence,

Please pass this on to the person who conducts Freedom of Information reviews.

I am writing to request an internal review of Ministry of Defence's handling of my FOI request 'Amended FOI re:UK/US use of weapons I previously gave the misnomer 'Voice of God 'weapon systems'.
You have taken far longer than allowed by law to answer the MOD related requests.

A full history of my FOI request and all correspondence is available on the Internet at this address:
http://www.whatdotheyknow.com/request/am...

Yours faithfully,

Paul Gaffney

MOD FOI Internal Reviews Team,

Dear Mr Gaffney,

Your modified request for information dated 16 October 2009 is so
similar to your original request that our response dated 29 January
2009 still applies - as does our decision that you are out of time
to seek an internal review of this request.

As previously advised, the MOD's position on this matter is that we
do not hold any information relevant to your request. This is
because UK forces have not used such a weapon.

I hope this clarifies the position for you.

Yours sincerely,

FOI Internal Review Team

Dear MOD FOI Internal Reviews Team,

Its not just that the UK does not such weapons but that if they have knowledge of their allies using such weapons (the patents included show such weapons are easily manufactured by most countries by 2010).This would mean that if the US is using such weapons then the UK has the duty to inform the relevant bodies.

Yours sincerely,

Paul GaffneyLLB BA

CIO-FOI-IR (MULTIUSER),

Dear Mr Gaffney,

The Freedom of Information Act gives entitlement to request recorded
information held by Public Authorities. All information held by, or on
behalf of, MOD is within the scope of the Act. As previously advised,
MOD does not hold any information relevant to your request. This means
that we have made a comprehensive search of the information we hold and
found nothing.

Yours sincerely,

FOI Internal Review Team

show quoted sections

Dear CIO-FOI-IR (MULTIUSER),

I am otherwise engaged at the moment.
I shall think of a suitable response later..

Yours sincerely,

Paul GaffneyLLB BA

Dear Ministry of Defence,

Please pass this on to the person who conducts Freedom of Information reviews.

I am writing to request an internal review of Ministry of Defence's handling of my FOI request 'Amended FOI re:UK/US use of weapons I previously gave the misnomer 'Voice of God 'weapon systems'.

They advise I am probably out of time which may be the case however I would still like to ask an internal review as I have updated the request with new information pretinent to the request.

A full history of my FOI request and all correspondence is available on the Internet at this address:
http://www.whatdotheyknow.com/request/am...

Yours faithfully,

Paul GaffneyLLB BA

MOD FOI Internal Reviews Team,

Dear Mr Gaffney,

Your modification of the wording does not alter the fact that you
are out of time to request an internal review of the handling of
this request for information.

However, as previously advised, we can confirm that MOD does not
hold any information relevant to your request (both as originally
worded and in its subsequently modified form). This means that we
have made a comprehensive search for information in scope of your
request and, in accordance with section 1 of the Act, we do not
hold the information of the description specified in the request.

Yours sincerely,

FOI Internal Review Team

Dear MOD FOI Internal Reviews Team,

Thank you for the reply.I shall answer you in good time.
I am however at present otherwise engaged.

Yours sincerely,

Paul GaffneyLLB BA

Dear Ministry of Defence,
Technological Simulation of Hallucination
John J. McMurtrey, M. S. a and Edward A. Moore, M. D. b
Copyright 2005, 6 Jan. 2008
ABSTRACT
Background: Psychiatrists frequently evaluate complaints of remote sound
transmission. Aim: Evidence for technologies capable of remote sound or voice
transmission isolated to individuals is surveyed along with target tracking capacity that
can maintain apparent psychosis. Method: Examination of government reports,
engineering databases, the patent database post 1976, PubMed, and the Internet for
available pertinent authentic sources. Results: Ultrasound and radio frequency voice
transmission are described as methods to remotely isolate voice to individuals. Accounts
of ultrasound and radio frequency energy forms used on people also exist. Conclusion:
Evidence indicates development of technologies capable of remotely isolating sound and
voice to an individual. Covert misuse of such technologies would result in simulated
hallucination, which has no diagnostic recognition.
“Such a device has obvious applications in covert operations designed to drive a target
crazy with ‘voices’ or deliver undetectable instructions to a programmed assassin.”
--Robert O. Becker regarding microwave hearing voice transmission, who was twice
Nobel Prize nominated for biological electromagnetic fields research. 1
a Corresponding author. Email- [email address] Address: 903 N. Calvert St., Baltimore MD
21202.
b Affiliated with University of Texas at San Antonio, College of Engineering. Emailedmoorester@
gmail.com Address: 403 Terrell Rd., San Antonio, Texas 78209.
INTRODUCTION c
Medical professionals regard the perception of voice or sound, which cannot be
heard by others nearby as hallucination excepting only tinnitus, and deem such
phenomena as psychotic manifestations on persistent, disturbing complaint. Though
‘hearing voices’ can involve numerous diagnoses, 2 this symptom is often considered
characteristic in schizophrenia with 47-98% prevalence, 3 but the symptom has reported
prevalence in dissociative identity disorder (DID) of 30-64%, 4 and in bipolar disorder of
7-48%. 5 Patients frequently believe that such voices are externally transmitted to them. 6
Apparently unrecognized by the psychiatric community, two technologies have the
described capacity to remotely transmit voice or sound in an individually isolated
manner. Considering that misuse of such technologies could simulate hallucination and
confuse diagnosis, the available body of evidence for such capacity is reviewed.
Herein is substantiated:
1. Development of remote ultrasound and radio frequency technologies
for transmitting sound or voice, which can be isolated to an individual.
2. Human tracking technologies.
3. Reports and published anecdotes of ultrasound and radio frequency
energy use against people.
c Abbreviations: ATC = American Technology Corporation. ABR = Auditory Brainstem Response. DID =
Dissociative Identity Disorder. FOIA = Freedom of Information Act. Hz = cycles per second, and is an
eponym honorific abbreviation for Heinrich Rudolph Hertz. LRAD = Long Range Acoustic Device. MHz
= Mega-Hertz denoting one million cycles per second.
2
METHODS
Literature examination by relevant terminology was performed on PubMed,
National Technical Information Service, Google search, US and European patent office
databases, as well as Compendex, the Wilson Web, and Inspec. Ultrasound and
microwave bioeffects references were also cross examined for relevance per article.
Inclusion/exclusion criteria are pertinence and authenticity.
Time series bibliometry of citations from the most recent radio frequency hearing
review was plotted in histogram with differentiation of known military support (Figure 1,
presently only papers in 1967, and 1975 are unexamined, now indicated no military
support.) The significance of difference in total publication rate was assessed by t-test d
of means for baseline publication prior to 1972 either as considered from the 1956
citation of advertisement with microwave hearing mention or the 1961 more definitive
Frey substantiation compared with the 1973-1980 apparent publication upslope.
Regression was plotted for the baseline with no upward trend, and per the concerns of
single case time series analysis, 7 the 1973-1980 upslope data were adjusted by per datum
d t – test equation:
_ _
__x_-_y____
__________
/ sx
2 sy
2
. \/ nx + ny
Where:
(The back slash-forward slash and underline combination above represent the
square root of the denominator terms.)
_ _
x and y are the mean of the respective populations compared.
sx and sy are the standard deviations of the respective populations.
nx and ny are the numbers of samples in the population.
3
subtraction of the mean from Frey 1961 through 1972 publication baseline for the
presented p value (all t-tests are highly significant.)
ULTRASOUND VOICE TRANSMISSION
The loud, steady production of two different tones results in a third tone equal to
the frequency difference between the original tones. The sounds so created are known as
the tones of Tartini 8 who was an 18th century violinist, and result from air non-linearity
that causes sound to scatter itself. The effect also occurs in water for sonar generators
called parametric arrays, with the short ultrasound wavelength permitting high directional
projection. Acoustic tones produced in air by ultrasound beams were first reported in
1962, 9 followed by several abstract reports 10 11 12 and then had more complete
publication. 13 Voice modulated on an ultrasound beam is caused to peal off by another
ultrasound beam in loudspeakers for directionally projecting audio sound, 14 15 16 17 with
mathematical prediction compared to experimental results. 18 19 Basic methods for such
speakers are described in the Audio Engineering Handbook. 20 Recently reported are
improvements in emitters, 21 and directivity. 22 Though utilized as a term in many reports,
‘loudspeaker’ has somewhat misleading connotations for these speakers, since virtual
point sound sources are generated within the ultrasound beams 23 without scattering
outside the beam intersection. 23 A recipient perceives this sound projection technique
as originating within the head without directional orientation as described from
demonstrations for an audio engineering society, 24 an engineering news article, 25 and
Popular Science 26 as well as non-lethal weapon applications patents.
4
An ultrasound voice transmission patent clearly focuses on non-lethal weapon use
against crowds or as directed at an individual. 27 Communication that is understood as an
inner voice can have powerful emotional reactions in people, “since most cultures
attribute inner voices either as a sign of madness, or as messages from spirits or demons.”
23 Another ultrasound voice transmission patent describes sound production particularly
within cavities such as the ear canal. 28 An individual readily understands communication
by the device across a noisy crowded room without discernment by others nearby. Sound
can also be made to appear as originating from mid-air or from surfaces by reflection.
American Technology Corporation (ATC) licensed this latter patent, and
commercially sells their HyperSonic Sound® system, which has a technical treatment
available 29 and a professional meeting presentation. 30 This company also has an
acoustic non-lethal weapon called the Long Range Acoustic Device (LRADTM) that is
deployed to the Navy, Coast Guard, Army, Marine Corps, military prison camps, and the
US Border Patrol 31 32 as well as ground troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. 33 An 80 %
efficacy in deterring wayward Persian Gulf vessels by the LRAD has science news
report. 34 The device is also deployed to police departments, 24 35 36 on cruise ships, 23
and at petroleum instillations, 37 while a version of the device is available for automatic
operation in conjunction with remote sensor security systems. 38 A similar ultrasound
method capable of limiting sound to one person, Audio Spotlight® has peer reviewed
publication, 23 and is marketed. Audio Spotlight press releases indicate exhibition at
Boston’s Museum of Science, 39 the General Motors display at Disney’s Epcot Center, 40
the Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum, and other public venues. 41 Press
accounts detail transmission of sound to persons unaware of such use 42 by both
5
developers, along with some description of more disturbing sound exposure, 43 which can
include pain even with ear plugs decreasing the noise. 23 A non-lethal weapons program
director confirms the lack of sound perception by other people nearby on ultrasound
voice transmission. 44 Though ultrasound can pass through walls, 45 46 the encoded sound
from ultrasound speakers reflects audibly upon striking hard flat surfaces.
MICROWAVE HEARING
Radar technicians had microwave hearing effect anecdotes in World War II 47 48
and the late 1940’s. 49 Allan H. Frey was the first to substantially characterize the
microwave hearing effect in a series of articles beginning in 1961, 50 51 52 yet much earlier
less defined observations in open literature by Cazzamalli of ‘radio frequency
hallucination’ 53 may well be the same effect. Subjects can hear appropriately pulsed
microwaves at least up to thousands of feet from the transmitter. 24 Peak pulse power
largely determines loudness, though with some dependence on pulse width. 24
Microwaves are the higher frequency portion of the radio frequency spectrum.
Frequency is denoted in Hz, which is an abbreviated eponym to honor radio pioneer
Heinrich Rudolph Hertz, but Hz just means cycles per second. Frequencies relevant to
microwave hearing are in Mega-Hertz (MHz) units or one million cycles per second, and
Giga-Hertz (GHz) units or one billion cycles per second. Though most hearing effect
literature refers to microwave hearing, radio frequency hearing is an appropriate term,
since the phenomenon extends below the 300 MHz microwave definition cutoff
frequency 24 to include 2.4 MHz magnetic resonance imaging radio frequency
generators. 54
6
Microwave hearing is the most accepted of low power microwave effects, because
of direct perception by many microwave workers with well replicated animal definition,
24 and numerous reviews of the phenomenon. 24 24 55 56 57 58 The sound produced is
perceived within or near the head. 24 Microwave hearing results from rapid
thermoelastic expansion causing sound waves within the head. 24 The cochlea is
involved, but not the middle ear. 25 The thermoelastic effect elicits sound within
substances with only certain materials or conditions able to emit air conducted sound. 59
Lin extends the range of microwave hearing to frequencies into the ‘tens of gigahertz.’ 24
A review of microwave bioeffects describes “receiverless” and “wireless” voice
transmission discovery in 1973 by Sharp and Grove, 60 e who were then at the Walter
Reed Army Institute of Research according to a different microwave hearing report
submission date. 61 The method was simple: negative deflections from recorded spoken
numbers were processed to cause triggering of microwave pulses. Upon illumination by
such verbally modulated energy, the words were understood remotely.
An Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command report states
microwave speech transmission with applications for “camouflage, decoy, and deception
operations” as a main rationale for a microwave exposure brain blood flow study, which
affirms “by proper choice of pulse characteristics, intelligible speech may be created.” 62
Between the inclusive dates given for these affirmations of microwave hearing voice
transmission development, the total simple sound radio frequency investigation
publication rate increased 3.7 fold, even with per datum subtraction of any possible mean
baseline trend (t-test p < 0.02) for normal statistics on the bibliometric time series of
e Both these researchers had then recently done classified work on the weapons implications of the Moscow
American Embassy irradiation according to Project Bizarre FOIA releases, see
http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/reading_room....
7
citations from the most recent radio frequency hearing review. 25 The Oskar, 1980
affirmation was published the year after the raw data historical peak of publications for
total and military supported simple sound radio frequency hearing reports, where for 45
years of investigation, half of citations cluster for publication date in the decade after
1973 as given for Dr. Sharp’s account of voice transmission discovery with the interval
having double the number of articles with military support compared to other periods,
and apparent clustering towards the dates of interest (Figure 1). The rapid drop in simple
sound microwave hearing publication coincides with evidence of Air Force interest in
defining radio frequency “forced disruptive phenomenon . . . to interrupt, degrade or
direct human central nervous system functioning.” 63 The Air Force mentions radio
frequency acoustic phenomenon, 25 but within the simple sound literature with expected
interest as forced disruptive phenomenon are notations of vibration, 64 buffeting of the
head as well as a “pins and needles” sensation, 24 and petit to grand mal seizures with
unconsciousness for 4-5 minutes 65 at altered f pulse parameters.
Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications describes applications of remote
voice transmission as “obviously not limited to therapeutic medicine.” 66 A Defense
Intelligence Agency review of Communist literature affirms microwave sound and
indicates voice transmission. The report states: “Sounds and possibly even words which
appear to be originating intracranially (within the head) can be induced by signal
modulation at very low average power densities.” 67 Among weapon implications are
“great potential for development into a system for disorientating or disrupting the
behavior patterns of military or diplomatic personnel.” 25
f At presumably higher pulse parameters, but only fully specified in the last reference.
8
The Brunkan Patent “Hearing system” is a device for verbal microwave hearing. 68
The invention details microwave speech transmission with a parabolic antenna remotely
illuminating the head. Complex sound and voice are built up by patterns of bursts with a
single burst composed of tightly grouped evenly spaced pulses. The microwave
spectrum granted by the patent is from 100 to 10,000 MHz with pulse width from 10
nanoseconds to 1 microsecond, and bursts of such pulses lasting from 500 nanoseconds to
100 microseconds (a nanosecond is 10 -9 or one billionth of a second; a microsecond is 10
-6 or one millionth of a second.) The 1000 MHz preferred operation is the optimal tissue
penetration frequency. 69 A similar German patent for remote antenna microwave voice
transmission is also based on microwave bursts. 70 A non-remote microwave voice
transmission patent based on microwave bursts is designed so that the burst frequency
matches the sound frequency. 71
Microwave hearing literature confirms an ability to reproduce sound
characteristics, and aspects of these patents. Though loudness is modulated by pulse
power, 24 72 closely spaced pulses also increase sound intensity, 73 74 or lower the
perception threshold. 24 The tonal quality of a pulse train corresponds to pulsation
frequency, 25 75 76 and longer pulse widths produce lower frequency sound. 24
Microwave pulse width differentially influences cat cochlear nucleus auditory units that
are responsive to different tones 77 over sound frequencies from 931 Hz to 25.5 kHz. 78
Twin pulse separation responses 25 have at least some analogy to human pitch
discrimination parameters. 79
Two separate devices with non-remote transducers show efficacy in peer
reviewed publication either by independent analysis of operation, 80 81 or the developers
9
demonstrating improved speech discrimination. 82 83 Although this latter report’s title
features electrotherapy, radio frequency hearing just previously was considered as
electrophonic hearing 84 and a radio frequency method is stated, while equipment
description is referred to an Air Force study. 85 This 1964 study is the first English radio
frequency voice transmission report with improved word discrimination for the hearing
impaired.
A 1993 classified non-lethal weapon conference demonstration of a microwave
voice transmission device of Lockheed-Sanders manufacture is reported by Nexus
Magazine. 86 Quoted descriptors are ‘voice synthesis’ or ‘synthetic telepathy.’ 26 This
same year a US Department of Defense contract was awarded entitled “Communicating
Via the Microwave Auditory Effect.” Communication initial results are: “The feasibility
of the concept has been established” using both low and high power systems. 87 A
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request for information on the project met with
denial on the part of the US Air Force, on the grounds that disclosure “could reasonably
be expected to cause damage to national security.” 88 Though the Air Force denied FOIA
disclosure, an Air Force report elaborates such a contract’s purpose for “the possibility of
covert suggestion and psychological direction” by “high fidelity speech” from microwave
hearing enabling a capacity “to ‘talk’ to selected adversaries in a fashion that would be
most disturbing to them.” 89 90
This Air Force discussion framed as ‘possibility’ is belied by publication during
he same year as patent application for a pulse amplitude modulation method for
implementation of such capability 91 by Air Force employees 92 93 with rights assigned to
the Air Force. FOIA releases related to the patent list “a psychological warfare
10
communication tool” under government use, 94 state experimental demonstration of
intelligible speech transmission, 95 and provide some description of initial experiments. 96
This first patent was followed by another related patent, 97 neither of which evidence
knowledge of previous development or citation of the obviously relevant Brunkan 25
patent.
Under voice to skull devices, a microwave voice transmission non-lethal weapon
is referenced in the thesaurus of the Center for Army Lessons Learned, which is a
military instruction website. 98 The US Navy has awarded a contract for the development
of an aversive non-lethal weapon termed MEDUSA, and based on the microwave
auditory effect that is to be able to focus on a single individual. 99 However, no voice
transmission is indicated for the Navy system. 26
When electromagnetic signatures of spoken words are applied to the head at very
low field levels (1 microTorr), word choice is reported significantly affected for related
words along the same emotional dimensions as the applied word. 100 Though inspired by
microwave hearing, this report is not of direct auditory perception, but of subliminal
word choice influence. The authors suggest that such an influence, even though weak
could shift the direction of group decisions in large populations, and have previously
elaborated the possibility for more general electromagnetic influence on populations. 101
TARGET TRACKING TECHNOLOGY
Diagnostic confusion with major psychotic states would require target tracking for
the maintenance of isolated hearing effects on people. Common technology utilizes the
radio frequency hearing spectrum, which encompasses cell phone, 102 103 TV, and radar
11
frequencies. 104 Since the ability to direct radiation is related to wavelength, which
becomes shorter with increasing frequency, g microwaves are directive in a manner
similar to light 105 except with structural penetrating ability. A variety of methods assist
radiation localization for collimation or focusing including masers, 106 and antennas that
are parabolic, have lens materials, 107 or are arranged in phased array. 108 Phased array
antennae can be of small configuration with the formation and direction of radar beams
without physical motion by precise phasing of current between array elements for
constructive and destructive interference. 26
Jane’s Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems lists 13 target tracking systems
specifying such capability on personnel at ranges from 4-20 km, which are utilized by
countries around the world. 109 Automated target tracking involves a track initiation
processor acquiring a target, while a data association filter maintains a tracking lock on
the target 110 with this process utilized to continuously direct a radar beam at a target for
tracking position. 111 Even a quarter century ago, specifications for weapons fire control
designs whereby aiming was entirely determined by radar tracking were commonly
evident with numerous radars dedicated to one weapon. 112 Radars devoted to tracking
isolated targets are presently prominent enough to merit a few paragraphs in a recent
science and technology encyclopedia. 113 Other components can be directed by radar
tracking, such as a camera at a human target for commercial security surveillance. 114
One patent describes human target tracking with automatic aiming of electromagnetically
induced pain, now a declassified capability, 26 115 and even remote assessment of
physiologic stress. 116
g By the relation: wavelength times frequency equals the speed of light.
12
Movement excursions less than a frequency’s wavelength alter the phase of a
target echo waveform as compared to the transmitted frequency. Since waveform phase
relates to distance in wavelength, this allows radar assessment of life by breathing and
heartbeat measurement from body surface excursions, which is reviewed respecting
medical or rescue use, 117 and hypovolemic states are discriminated. 118 Surroundings
without motion do not return echoes with waveform out of phase from the transmitted
signal in contrast to living subjects, so that vital organ cycle detection is utilized in
through wall radar discernment of humans developed for security purposes. 119 The
capacity is evaluated as a covert polygraph for lie detection. 120 121 One system 122 for
radar visualization of humans through walls utilizing just range radar with a moving
target indication method, has a 5 inch resolution, 123 and is approved for sale by the US
Federal Communications Commission. 124
Patents for rescue 125 and security systems 126 with radar detecting vital organ
motion describe the ability to distinguish individuals through obstruction by frequency
analysis, which forms a type of “electronic fingerprint.” Besides vital organ oscillation
from phase change contributions to the human radar signature, another method is based
on the Doppler effect, whereby motion adds or subtracts energy to a radar echo so that
the return signal frequency is changed in proportion to velocity. Doppler effects produce
individual variance of human signals 127 with gait 128 and heartbeat 129 considered as
biometric identifiers. Humans have good radar reflectance, 27 and body parts can be
resolved by through wall imaging. 130 Human motion generated Doppler frequencies are
regarded as a frequency spectrogram resulting from moving centers of body and
appendage radar scattering, where just thigh height would provide reasonably accurate
13
discrimination between males or females based on relevant biometric distribution
(expected accuracy for sex; male – 84%, female – 91%). 131 Stationary surroundings only
return echoes at the transmitted frequency, so the Doppler effect usefully identifies
moving targets inside structures. Other information available to radar is the human radar
cross section, which is about one square meter, 132 but is proportional to a target’s weight,
133 and varies with the subject’s orientation with respect to the radar antenna even from
front versus back such that differences in radar cross section relate to body position. 134
Further general target recognition methods are based on polarization characteristics, and
the frequency amplitude response. 135
Target illumination tracking systems have at least microsecond response times.
Such responses require no wide scan area to lock illumination upon a person at
achievable speeds. Less than 1/100th of an inch in a microsecond is traversed at 90 miles
per hour.
Battlefield human tracking specifications are not expected to consider urban
obstruction. Radar capability through obstruction is apparent from the optimization and
adaptation of military radar to commercial through-the-wall surveillance development, 136
with open literature surveys or overviews available. 137 138 139 Most materials negligibly
attenuate radar at the lower microwave frequencies. High frequencies in the millimeter
wavelengths (95 GHz = 3 mm) can provide detailed imaging of humans, but are not
suitable for brick and concrete. 27 Though lacking in more detail, some human image
can be obtained at frequencies as low as 10 GHz, which also has good building material
penetration. 27
14
Raytheon’s Motion and Ranging System is battery operated, briefcase sized, has a
100 foot range, 140 provides two dimensional tracking, and can report range to motion of
30 targets. 141 142 Another system characterizes through wall capability as at “any
distance.” 143 A portable, battery operated radar report states detection of individuals
through 3 walls. 144 Other literature reports detection of personnel through several
intervening walls, 27 or through a single brick wall 15 inches 145 and ½ meter wide (about
5 brick courses). 27 Since through-wall surveillance systems evident in the open
literature are subject to commercial regulatory, pricing, portability, and imaging
constraints, they cannot be regarded as the capability limit especially regarding radars for
less economically constrained security markets or without portable design.
ACCOUNTS OF MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND USE AGAINST HUMANS
Ultrasound behavioral influence technology use in Northern Ireland is cited. 146
The device could focus on one person, though voice transmission is unconfirmed. The
Americans employed the system in Vietnam, which is termed the squawk box, while a
news report characterizes psychological effects as ‘spooky,’ annoying, and intolerable. 147
British police inventories list the specific device, though a spokesman denied use. 148
The Long Range Acoustic Device has published descriptions of utilization for clearing
occupants from a building to execute a search warrant, repelling a pirate attack from a
cruise ship, and ‘drawing out snipers’ for destruction, 23 besides acknowledged use as a
‘hailing’ device with the demonstrations and developer ‘pranks’ noted above.
The most documented citizen microwave irradiation was of peace protesters at
Greenham Common American Air Force Base in Berkshire England, who prompted
15
investigation of unusual symptoms 149 that fit well with electromagnetic exposure
syndrome. 28 Radiation measurements exhibited microwaves with symptom experience
up to a hundred times the background level, and rose sharply on protests nearer the base.
28 That some of the women ‘heard voices’ has report. 150
Though the source is otherwise postulated, radio frequency field measurement is
reported in the vicinity of an Australian DID case, 151 which is a disorder with indicated
precedent for intelligence service interest and use. 152 The radiation intensity ranged from
7 mV in an adjacent room to 35 mV next to the head. Other published anecdotal cases
affirm microwave field measurement without strength publication. 153 154 155 A security
company advertises investigations of electromagnetic harassment including microwave
voice transmission with field measurement. 156
DISCUSSION
Ultrasound voice transmission technology is well confirmed by peer reviewed
literature, deployed in military 23 24 24 or police situations, 24 24 24 publicly
demonstrated in museum exhibits, 24 24 24 and for sale to the public. 157 158 Microwave
hearing literature defines pulse parameters that elicit audition, which would be considered
hallucination by psychiatrists on complaint of covert simple sound transmission, and
provides a foundation for radio frequency voice transmission citations. Peer reviewed
literature 25 25 and a government report 25 confirm non-remote voice transmission
systems. There are four patents for remote radio frequency voice transmission, 25 25 two
of which were developed by the US Defense Department. 26 26 Successful independent
development of such methods is indicated twice: Original successful Army experiments
16
25 followed by increased historical density of total and military supported simple sound
investigations that peak the year before publication (Figure 1) of a bioeffects study citing
speech transmission as rationale, 25 and alternative news report of device demonstration.
26 Later, the Air Force had their own initial experiments 26 that with more development
became patents, 26 26 and successful demonstration is stated. 26 Duplicated effort is
usual to classified programs. Though there is only some publication of microwave field
strength around victims 28 28 or measurement anecdotes, 28 28 28 with some
publications of remote radio frequency voice transmission use being in media of variable
reliability, such reports are supported by descriptions of non-lethal weapon applications
25 26 and designation as a weapons capability. 26 26 26 The fact is that these accounts
or any remote harassment complaints have no adequate investigation because medical
texts and professors teach that such claims are symptoms of mental illness, despite
abundant indications that voice transmission and human tracking has long enabled
feasibility for continuously isolating sound or voice to individuals. It must be appreciated
that engineering development is often proprietary and less published than open science,
especially in areas with covert application. Implementing microwave hearing voice
transmission would apparently involve little more than programming a radar tracking
beam for the necessary characteristics.
The logic in the prediction by Brzezinski h of a more controlled and directed
society dominated by a power elite willing to use the latest modern techniques for
influencing behavior without hindrance by liberal democratic values is compelling. 159
Since prevalent expertise assumes that voice transmission perception by any possible
h
National Security Advisor to President Carter.
17
victim only has basis as a psychotic symptom without reality, serious complaints have
such disregard that the ability to bear witness in journalistic or police investigation and
court proceeding is readily compromised. Potential targets are multiple, and may include
anyone worth manipulation: domestic adversaries; witnesses of improprieties; security
risks, which may only comprise classified disclosures; those prone to committing
advantageous felonies; and even those psychologically similar to other targets for
development or training purposes. Covert voice transmission technology is most
applicable within the same language and culture. Security agencies have little legal
accountability, particularly with utilization of unrecognized technology. Legality is
readily circumvented by executive orders, (particularly declaring an emergency
situation), which can be sealed with the prerogative only accountable to co-equal
government branches.
Though complaint of ‘hearing voices’ is routinely diagnosed as psychotic, 160
psychoanalytical acknowledgement of such technological capacity and the need for new
diagnostic criteria does exist. 161 The current standard of care severely discredits anyone
claiming such an affliction. Longstanding complaints by numerous individuals about
remote voice transmission to the medical community 23 are too correspondent with the
technological development herein documented to further ignore. The rationale for civil
rights abrogation based on the presumption that such symptoms have no plausible
external etiology requires justification by rational investigation that is absent from
medical literature. Without adequate investigation, final diagnoses cannot be regarded as
conclusive but must be viewed as presumptive. Undermining such presumption are some
hallucination brain response reports that support microwave hearing as a simulated
18
hallucination mechanism by indicating involvement of the initial hearing pathway, which
is a promising criterion for differential diagnosis. 162
Microwave hearing is actually heard through the cochlea of the inner ear causing
activation of associated brain nuclei resulting in the Auditory Brainstem Response
(ABR). 163 164 165 The ABR is a validated hearing evaluation technique for unresponsive
patients. 166 The ABR could be altered for patient indication of voice
transmission/hallucination instead of audible tone presentation. An ABR is not expected
to occur from endogenous hallucination that has inner speech mis-identification as the
current leading theory.
Radio frequency field measurement in the vicinity of complainants, especially
with attention to directional cranial localization is appropriate with any field elevation
further characterized. Investigation of electrophysiological deficits correspondent
between microwave bioeffects and schizophrenia 167 compared with and without
electromagnetic shielding might provide differentiation with existing magnetic resonance
imaging, and magnetoencephalography facilities shielded from commercial signals, but
radar effectiveness must be proven. At least the burst-pulse microwave voice
transmission patents are pulsed at such high frequencies that an additional ultrasound
component is expected, 25 similar to microwave thermoacoustically induced ultrasound
tomography. 168 Even recordings claiming an ability to capture harassment sounds 25
have support in that condenser microphones are responsive to the thermoacoustic effect
though as induced by a laser. 169
Considering the number of patients who complain of remote influence and actual
authentic indications of such technology, due investigative diligence is required to avoid
19
the appearance of ethical negligence in remuneration for unsubstantiated opinion that
violates basic human rights. The ambiguity of diagnostic supposition is supported by
extensive correlations of microwave bioeffects with reported schizophrenia symptoms
other than ’voices,’ which includes: short-term and spatial memory deficit, time
estimation changes, deficits in sequencing, coordination deficit, numerous
electrophysiological changes, startle decrease, neurotransmitter changes, hormone
alterations, immune alterations, mitochondria deficits, lipid phosphorylation decrease,
lipid peroxidation, deleterious histological change in disease reduced brain areas,
activation of hallucination involved brain areas, and ocular disease. 28 Even the most
apparently bizarre of Schneiderian symptoms may have basis in that recent EEG analysis
studies confirm and extend the feasibility of thought reading, which was reported initially
by a 1975 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency study, and there are references to
‘remote EEG’ microwave methods. 170
20
Radio Frequency Hearing Articles per Year
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1956
1959
1962
1965
1968
1971
1974
1977
1980
1983
1986
1989
1992
1995
1998
2001
Year
Article Quantity
Military Support Acknowledged No Military Support Acknowledged
Figure 1. Histogram of article quantity per year for Elder and Chou, 2003 25 radio frequency auditory
response review citations. Simple sound radio frequency hearing publications increase on and after the
date given (1973) for Dr. Sharp’s account of successful microwave hearing voice transmission for total and
military supported investigations. Maximal quantities for each category occur the year before the Oskar,
1980 Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command study affirms microwave hearing
speech transmission as a study rationale. Acknowledgement of military support in prior or post periods are
half the rate that occurs for investigations dated from 1973 through 1983, wherein 45 % of these studies
acknowledge military support. Though some military supported reports originated from naval laboratories,
the primary military funding source was the Office of Naval Research with only one study having
additional Army funding contribution, and another study solely Air Force funded. Note the relative lack of
publications during the O’Loughlin and Loree patent period of development (1996-2001).
Acknowledgements: Thanks are given to John Allman for financially supporting an
initial draft and Alfredo Julio Nieto Centeno for encouraging donations. Thanks are also
given to God for inspiration, Sharon Weinberger for the Air Force patent FOIA releases,
as well as the suggestions of Dr. Paul Canner and Dr. Allen Barker.
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This articel and othesr like it o proves such technology is feasible and would I belive constitue torture

Yours faithfully,

Paul Gaffney

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