To Department for Transport,
In relation to your "Aircraft contrails" (26 April 2018) publication, currently available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publicatio..., I have a number of question that I require you to answer.
This FOIR is quite lengthy and requires an in-depth response – not just because of the serious implications of the subject matter, but also because I represent thousands of other UK citizens, many of whom have already written to you with similar concerns and are dissatisfied with the responses they have received so far.
SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL
1. How does Her Majesty's Government (HMG) define a "persistent aircraft trail"? In particular, what is the minimum amount of time for which an aircraft trail must persist in order for it to be classified as a persistent aircraft trail?
2. Please would you expand on your definition of an "ordinary condensation trail" and quantify the amounts of “minute products of combustion” present in aircraft trails.
3. HMG has previously stated: "If humidity and temperature are in the right balance (temperature must be below -45º C for modern airliner jet engines) these condensation trails cannot evaporate again and so persist for some time..." Confusingly, HMG have also stated the temperature must be below -57º C. Please would you clarify the temperature value and also expand upon the “right balance” (including relative humidity, pressure and any other atmospheric conditions) that are required in order for condensation trails to persist. Please also provide your sources of this information.
4. You appear to suggest that wing tip contrails solve the mystery of two-engine aircraft producing four trails, and describe wing tip contrails as a "common phenomenon". But the NASA "Contrails" publication (currently available at https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files...) states that "During VERY SPECIFIC WEATHER CONDITIONS you may see vapor trails form at the rear of the wingtips of jet aircraft on TAKEOFF or LANDING." Will you therefore change your statement to confirm that wing tip contrails are *not* a viable explanation for the additional contrails that are being observed from cruising aircraft?
5. If aircraft trails are “essentially ice”, how is it scientifically possible for freezing ice to be ejected from a super hot aircraft engine with no notable cooling gap? (See https://videos.files.wordpress.com/FcHYp... for example footage.)
6. A lot of work and research is being done around the world to support the claim that at least some of the aircraft trails we are experiencing are chemical-based. (Such research includes military documents, political documents, patents, whistleblower testimonies, rainwater tests, photographic/video evidence.) What work/research has HMG done to support its claim that *none* of the aircraft trails above the UK are chemical-based?
7. Has any work been done to determine whether the locations and directions of the persistent aircraft trails and grids formed in our skies correspond with commercial flight paths?
8. What explanation can you provide for a single aircraft emitting two trails with observably different characteristics? Examples include:
i. From a single aircraft, one trail persists whilst the other trail doesn't.
ii. From a single aircraft, one trail spreads whilst the other trail doesn't.
iii. From a single aircraft, one trail forms into small loops/links (seemingly, some kind of reactive process) whilst the other doesn’t.
9. Rather than increased vapour emission, might the increase in persistent trails from modern jet engines also be attributable to an increase in particulate emission or some other factor?
10. Do the benefits of increased efficiency of modern jet engines (i.e., less carbon output) outweigh the various consequences of increased persistent trail formation? (See following section for some of these consequences.)
11. Has HMG considered the suggestion made by physicist, Robert Noland of Imperial College London, that reducing the cruising altitude of aircraft could reduce the formation of contrails and, therefore, help reduce the net contribution from aviation to anthropogenic global warming (AGW)? (See https://www.imperial.ac.uk/college.asp?P...)
12. Given that the two main internet-based flight tracking services, Flightradar24 and Plane Finder, have excellent coverage in the UK, does HMG have any concerns about the numerous planes flying over our country without a "correct transponder" and are therefore unidentifiable – especially given the destructive nature of the trails left by these planes?
EFFECTS ON CLIMATE AND HEALTH
13. Whilst emissions from civil aircraft (i.e., commercial and private jets) are regulated by the International Civil Aviation Organization, are these emissions actually monitored? And is there any such entity that regulates and/or monitors the emissions from *military* aircraft?
14. Are there any entities that regulate and/or monitor the composition of jet fuel used in civil and military aircraft?
15. Similarly, are there any entities that regulate and/or monitor the transponder transmissions (in particular, the absence of them) from civil and military aircraft?
16. You state, “persistent contrails have an effect on the reflection of solar radiation.” How large is this effect? And to what extent do aircraft trails contribute to global dimming and to the decimation of the ozone layer?
17. What percentage of the cloud in our skies is created by aircraft? And how does this compare to historical figures?
18. Where do the "oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter which can cause respiratory problems" from aircraft trails get "dispersed" to? In particular, what percentage of these particulates end up might end up in our breathable air and, therefore, in our lungs/bodies?
19. HMG’s own publications clearly demonstrate how the reflection of sunlight due to persistent aircraft trails is contributing to vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, rickets and osteomalacia:
i. The Department of Health and Social Care state, “Figures show up to a quarter of the population has low levels of vitamin D in their blood… deficiency can lead to bone problems such as rickets in children and weakness, aches and pains due to osteomalacia (the adult form of rickets) in adults.” (https://www.gov.uk/government/news/dange...)
ii. Public Health England states, “sunlight... is the main source of vitamin D for most people.” (https://www.gov.uk/government/news/phe-p...)
iii. The Chief Medical Officers for the UK state, “The following groups of people are at risk of vitamin D deficiency: … People who have low or no exposure to the sun.” adding, “It is important for public health that low levels of vitamin D are avoided.” (https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk...)
iv. You state, “persistent contrails have an effect on the reflection of solar radiation.” (https://www.gov.uk/government/publicatio...)
Accordingly, will you be revising the latter of those four publications – the “Aircraft contrails” (26 April 2018) document – that currently states “There is no evidence that contrails cause health problems.” to “There is clear evidence that contrails cause health problems.”?
20. To what extent did you search for evidence before stating "there is no evidence that contrails cause health problems"?
21. Some of the other consequences of persistent aircraft trails and increased cloud cover include:
i. Higher food prices – due to lower crop yields, resulting from reduced sunlight.
ii. Vitamin D deficiency – due to reduced sunlight.
iii. Mental illnesses (e.g., depression and seasonal affective disorder) – linked to reduced exposure to sunlight.
iv. Higher energy bills – due to reduced solar energy generation, from reduced sunlight.
v. Reduced tourism revenue – due to worse UK weather and people choosing to holiday in other countries.
All these consequences contribute to a weakened economy and, therefore, contribute to increased personal financial hardship and (directly or indirectly) ill health. Does HMG acknowledge these consequences? And what other consequences of persistent aircraft trails and increased cloud cover is HMG aware of?
22. Why do you claim “that the contribution from persistent contrails from aviation to AGW is around 100 times smaller than the effects of greenhouse gases” when NASA itself (see https://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2004/ap...) clearly state that “increased cirrus coverage, attributable to air traffic, could account for nearly all of the warming observed over the United States for nearly 20 years starting in 1975”?
23. AGW aside, with NASA’s statement in mind, that “Any change in global cloud cover may contribute to long-term changes in the Earth’s climate. Contrails, especially persistent contrails, represent a human-caused increase in the Earth’s cloudiness, and are likely to be affecting climate and ultimately our natural resources...” what work has been done to understand the correlation between the incidence of aircraft trails and the frequency/severity of floods, droughts, heat waves, sandstorms, lightening (including silent lightening), sun dogs, nano/smart dust, deforestation, extinctions and the diminishing bee population?
24. To what extent do persistent aircraft trails contribute to higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (e.g., reduction in sunlight resulting in less photosynthesis which results in less carbon dioxide being absorbed from the atmosphere)?
25. Whilst persistent aircraft trails may provide notable benefits for various entities, including:
i. Stakeholders of geoengineering – as aircraft trails are increasing the surface temperatures that geoengineering claims it can later rectify.
The United Nations – as the official application of geoengineering may require a single, worldwide governing entity.
ii. GMO companies – as they can provide abiotic stress resistant GM seeds that can thrive in the extreme conditions created by climate change that is exacerbated by aircraft trails.
iii. Pharmaceutical companies – as they proffer the cures to the physical and mental ailments that are caused/exacerbated by aircraft trails.
iv. The private healthcare industry – as more people get ill, more people require healthcare.
what *benefits* (if any) does HMG believe persistent aircraft trails provide for the general population?
26. Please provide a full breakdown (covering all aspects) of what HMG has spent on geoengineering to date? Please also provide a similar breakdown of future budgets/projections.
27. What quantity of greenhouse gases does HMG currently attribute to the aviation industry? And to what extent might that figure increase if/when stratospheric aerosol geoengineering activities officially commence?
28. Whilst you have stated “The UK does not use cloud seeding, neither does it deploy geoengineering.” the Science and Technology Committee has stated that “those carrying out [solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering] tests do so in secrecy” (see https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm...). This revelation is exactly inline with the advice given by the Solar Radiation Management Government Initiative (SRMGI) stating they should keep the general public “informed on what GE (geoengineering) is for, but don’t necessarily ask their permission.”
So when, where and who is performing these secret SRM geoengineering tests? And might the chemicals being used include (ozone-depleting) CFC-11?
29. With a requirement of SRM being to “add a little more” pollution to the atmosphere every year, how long will it be be until the sun is blocked out completely? And what are the consequences of that likely to be?
DEFENCE / MILITARY
30. Does *any* country, organisation or other entity engage in any type of geoengineering, climate engineering, weather modification, cloud seeding, weather warfare or any other type of activity that may involve intentional persistent aircraft trails in/above the UK? Is HMG aware of any activities performed elsewhere that may affect the UK and/or our airspace?
31. Is it possible the unidentifiable aircraft (probably military in nature) that we observe leaving persistent trails in our skies may (intentionally or otherwise) be inducing atmospheric conditions that then result in an increased incidence of persistent trails from other jet aircraft?
32. From 1967 to 1972, the USA conducted a cloud seeding operation, Operation Popeye, to increase rainfall in South-east Asia during the Vietnam War. What steps are in place to prevent an aircraft (whether it is taking off from this country or taking off from another country) from emitting substances into UK airspace? And how is the effectiveness of these steps monitored?
33. The United Nations' IPCC is a political organisation rather than a scientific body that has a history steeped in major controversy. Given the growing list of concerns about the IPCC, what attempts does HMG make to check the information and claims provided to it by the IPCC?
34. Is HMG bound or encouraged in any way to accept and/or uphold the claims and/or citations of the IPCC?
35. To what extent has HMG explored the views, claims and concerns of the IPCC’s opponents (such as the NIPCC, the 31,487 signatories of the Oregon Petition and the prominent scientists documented at climatechangesense.org)?
36. This century has already recorded six of the wettest months since current records began. How much money has HMG spent on flood defences (including construction, maintenance and repairs) for each of the past 50 years? By contrast, for each of the past 50 years, how much money has HMG spent on investigating the correlation between the perceived upsurge in persistent aircraft trails and the recorded upsurge in flooding?
37. Previous experiments and operations performed on the UK population (such as germ warfare tests between 1940 and 1979, and the 1952 flooding of Lynmouth) remained secret for decades after the experiment/operation ended. How many enquires were made by the public about those activities from the time the activity started to the time the activity was publicly disclosed by HMG? And how did HMG respond to those enquiries? In particular, how many of these enquiries did HMG respond to with denial, and how many did HMG respond to with admittance?
38. What reasons or vehicles (e.g., The Official Secrets Act, D-Notices, national security, national defence, international defence/conquest, personal interest) may have existed that could have discouraged, deterred or prevented HMG from publicly acknowledging the germ warfare tests and Lynmouth flooding activities?
39. What reasons or vehicles are now in place that may discourage, deter or prevent HMG from admitting to any secret operation/activity involving aircraft trails that may be occurring today?
40. If there was a secret operation/activity involving aircraft trails that was to end today (18th May 2018) when would HMG be able to publicly disclose it? And what is the mechanism that results in the disclosure?
I would like to share this FOIR and subsequent communications with members of the public and members of parliament (MPs) at chemtrailsprojectuk.com. However, we discovered during a previous project that HMG had chosen to blacklist this domain, thus obstructing MPs from viewing our research. Can you explain why that decision was made and what can we do to get the domain removed from HMG’s blacklist?
I am writing to acknowledge receipt of your request for information which
has been allocated reference number P0016071.
A response will be issued to you in due course.
Department for Transport
FOI Advice Team
Sedlescombe Road North
St Leonards on Sea
Good Morning James,
Please see attached response to your Freedom of Information request.
[IMG] Bruno Gaisie
Policy Officer, Aviation Noise
1/25, Great Minster House
33 Horseferry Road, London, SW1P 4DR
Follow us on twitter @transportgovuk
Dear Department for Transport,
Please pass this on to the person who conducts Freedom of Information (FOI) reviews.
I am writing to request an internal review of Department for Transport's handling of my FOI request 'Aircraft Trails'.
I appreciate your response, dated 18 June 2018. However, I am disappointed that you failed to answer a single question.
Many of the questions I asked were to request the DfT to back up its various claims about aircraft trails by providing the information that went into forming those claims. But you reveal "the Department does not hold the information you have requested."
Would it therefore be correct to assume the absence of such information means the DfT has been leading the public on with unsubstantiated claims about aircraft trails?
Again, please explain the origin of your claims that I refer to in my FOI request. (Surely, there must be some record of this!)
A full history of my FOI request and all correspondence is available on the Internet at this address: https://www.whatdotheyknow.com/request/a... .
Thank you for your email.
This is to confirm receipt of your request for an internal review.
The department aims to respond to you on or before 3 August 2018.
FOI Advice Team
Department for Transport
Dear Mr Hodgskiss,
Please find attached a response to your FOIA complaint.
[IMG] Mr Jonathan Friel
1/25, Great Minster House
33 Horseferry Road, London, SW1P 4DR
Follow us on twitter @transportgovuk
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