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Supplementary written evidence submitted by the National Police Chiefs’ Council (MAC0037)
1. Thank you for inviting Chief Constable Ian Hopkins and I to provide evidence to your
Inquiry ‘The MacPherson Report: twenty-one years on’ on the 24th June 2020. As part
of that session we agreed to provide supplementary evidence in writing on a number of
matters that arose. I am grateful to your Parliamentary Clerk for confirming these to us
in writing on 26th June. I have also taken the opportunity to set out the next steps on the
piece of work that I informed you that we have launched on race across policing.
Fixed Penalty Notices – COVID-19
You spoke about your approach in Greater Manchester Police with regard to the
use of issuing FPNs during Covid-19 specifically in relation to their possible
disproportionate use, can you provide more detail on this approach and why you
chose to initiate this approach?
2. The approach in Greater Manchester Police (GMP) has been consistent and clear
throughout the period. This was to use the NPCC national guidance and adopt the
engage, explain and encourage approach, with enforcement only considered as a last
resort. The rationale for this approach is documented in the Public Engagement Strategy
written by the Chief Constable and communicated to his Chief Officers on the 5th April
2020. This is included in Annex A along with details of other communications, the local
media response and a summary of interactions with GMP.
As part of the Covid-19 policing regulation guidelines there are four
stages: engage, explain, encourage, enforce. The statistical evidence of ethnic
disproportionality in the police use of FPNs during Covid-19 would appear to
suggest either that BME individuals were less likely to respond to the first three
stages of this process in advance of a FPN being issued; or, that police officers were
more likely to move more quickly to ‘enforce’ in encounters with BME individuals
than White individuals in those areas where disproportionality has been
found. Please explain what you understand to be the case. What evidence can you
provide in support of your response?
3. We are unable to answer this question with the data that we hold as we do not routinely
record the demographic background of individuals that the police engage with in the
course of regular proactive policing activity unless formal action is taken against them.
Sir Ronnie Flanagan’s
4. report of ‘The Review of Policing’, produced in February 2008, which I also refer to
later in this letter in my response to recording voluntary stops, noted that the ‘manually
recorded’ system of stop and account took on average seven minutes per encounter and
‘usually leads to suspicion on the part of the member of the public involved’. Therefore,
we do not hold information on the ethnic background of all those that were engaged
under the Three ‘Es’ approach and did not require enforcement action. We do know
that GMP recorded 2,591 incidents attended by the police which involved interactions
related to COVID regulations, of which only 316 (12%) resulted in the issue of an FPN.
This should not be seen as precise figure as this is based on incident data which is
not subject to rigorous quality checks and many police interactions with members of
the public will not have resulted in an incident being recorded. However, it provides an
indication of how officers have applied the 4Es and used enforcement powers sparingly.
5. I mentioned at the session with you and the Committee a formal piece of work that I
had underway with the Government Statistical Service to review all FPNs. This work
is analysing those tickets issued between the 27th March and 25th May and will explore
the extent to which there is evidence of disproportionality in the way in which the police
service enforced the new health protection regulations in England and Wales.
Specifically, this is examining any variations in the level of such FPNs for contravening
the regulations across different ethnic groups. This is a complex issue due to limitations
of the available data and conclusions will be drawn based on a range of approaches to
analysing the data. Results will be presented for England and Wales at a Police Force
Area (PFA) level and will examine rates of FPNs issued on two different bases: the
location of the force area in which the individual who was issued with the fine was
present at the time, and the force area in which the individual issued with the fine is
6. I am pleased to also report that this work is progressing well. We have now just entered
the peer review phase and hope to be able to publish at some point week commencing
Monday 13th. This will probably be towards the latter part of that week, but we are
working hard to release this report as soon as possible acknowledging its importance
and the interest in it. I do not want to pre-empt its findings, especially as it is currently
being peer reviewed, but the preliminary results indicate that the level of
disproportionality suggested in the Liberty report appears to overstate the reality. These
findings also suggest that compared with existing police powers, the police used
enforcement activity of these new regulations relatively infrequently. The actual
number of FPNs issued (17,039) represented a rate of 3 fines for every 10,000 residents
in England and Wales during this period. We have previously reported
the 4-week period to the 24th May alone, the police recorded 134,188 incidents with a
Covid-19 footprint. This includes incidents where officers have proactively offered
advice to people, responded to reports from the members of the public about breaches
of the regulation by others and offences where criminals have sought to take advantage
of the pandemic to commit a crime.
7. The relatively small number of FPNs issued reflects the guidance issued jointly by the
NPCC and College of Policing about the policing of these new regulations. The College
advocated enforcement to be used only as a last resort when attempts to engage with
individuals to explain the regulations and encourage compliance had not been
successful. It would not have been feasible for forces to record the number and detail
of all such encounters. This makes the analysis of whether enforcement action occurred
evenly across different ethnic groups challenging since it is not possible to know what
proportion of such encounters resulted in enforcement action. I would like to share the
report with you under embargo shortly before publication if you would find this helpful.
Please let me know if this is something that you would like to do, and I will make the
Policing of demonstrations during Covid-19
Can you provide clarification about the claim made by Stopwatch to the
Committee that far right protesters in London on 13 June were not policed as
heavily as the BLM demonstration in London on 6 June. On 13 June it was
reported by the media that protestors included football hooligans connected to the
Democratic Football Lads Alliance and representatives of the party-political far-
right. Can you provide the Committee with the number of arrests that took place
at both of these demonstrations? The Committee would be grateful for any further
information you are able to provide about the police’s approach to its policing of
these two demonstrations which would cast light on the decision-making process
and factors considered in determining that approach.
8. The policing approach to all recent protests has been consistent, based on a graduated
response, taking account of intelligence and what activity occurred on the actual day,
and using the four ‘Es’ approach. Any situation of this nature presents the challenge for
operational commanders to weigh up the risk of increased or further public order if the
approach is not balanced. The data that we have both on a UK wide level and in London
specifically shows that there was a lower incident rate of arrests for both on the 6th June
BLM Demonstration than for the Protest groups that turned out on the 13th June. The
UK wide figures show that there were 32 arrests on 6th June which equates to 0.057%
of attendees. There were 14 assaults on police officers in the Metropolitan Police
Service. On the 13th June there were 137 arrests which equates to 0.36% of total
attendees. On this date there were 36 assaults on officers (23 MPS, 7 BTP, 3
Northumbria, 2 Humberside, 1 Sussex). In London there were 29 arrests from 20,000
protesters on the 6th June and 115 arrests from 2,000 protesters on the 13th June.
Use of Tasers
you clarify if Black people are nearly 8 times more likely than White people
to be subject to use of Tasers as claimed by Liberty in evidence to the
9. We do not recognise the figures or analysis used to arrive at this statement but would
be keen to see the detail in order that we can provide comment. Taser use has risen
across the UK however, this should be considered against the broader context. There
has been a rise in the number of officers who are now trained to use Taser in response
to concerns about the rise in serious violent crime and assaults on emergency workers.
10. Taser use is not simply defined by whether a Taser is discharged or not. There are seven
recorded ‘uses’ of Taser: Draw, Aim, Arc, Red dot, Drive stun, Fired, Angled drive
stun. The first four are classified as ‘passive uses’ where the mere presence of the device
is enough to bring a violent or potentially violent situation to a swift conclusion. Official
statistics on the use of Tasers are published by the Home Office annually.
11. These ‘uses’ taken together demonstrate at a national level that the number of incidents,
per head of population shows, that people from BAME backgrounds are subjects to a
higher rate of use than those from a White background. However, the use of Tasers
varies significantly across force areas and any analysis of disproportionality should take
that into account as well as the disproportionate concentration of certain ethnic groups
in particular parts of the country.
12. The latest official statistics show that in 2018/19 there were 23,500 uses of Taser. Of
those Taser uses, 85% were passive, non-discharge
. 4% were unknown,
remaining 11% were discharges
. The ethnicity (where known) of those that have been
involved in incidents where police have used Taser are shown in the table below:
13. These statistics have been published with a degree of caution as it is only the second
year that statistics have been published in this way. However, the figures demonstrate
that Black people involved in such incidents were more likely to be subject of non-
discharge of Taser (88% compared with 83% for White people) and those from a White
background (12%) were more likely to have Taser discharged on them than those with
a Black background (10%). Taser is one of many tactical options that officers have in
the face of violence or threats of violence.
b) Can you provide the Committee with data for 1 April 2019 – 31 March 2020 the
number of times police Tasers have been (a) drawn and (b) discharged, by
ethnicity of subject. Does this data support Liberty’s claim that Black people are
nearly 8 times more likely to be subject to use of Tasers compared with White
people? If so, what is your explanation for this?
14. The figures requested for 2019/20 will be published by the Home Office later this year
and are not currently available. Data is collected within policing under the use of force
database which is overseen by DAC Matt Twist, which are required to collect the
minimum standard required by the Home Office.
c) In response to Open Society Foundation’s claim that not all officers are trained
to use Tasers, can you outline if there are any requirements that must be in place
before a police officer can use a Taser? Please provide us with the details of the
training officers receive before they are issued with Tasers.
15. Police forces decide the number of officers to train in the use of conducted energy
devices (CED) (also known by the brand name Taser) through a strategic threat and risk
assessment process. Therefore, it is true to say not all police officers are trained
to use Taser, as if they do not carry one operationally there is no need to be trained in
its use. Those officers that do carry a Taser are trained.
16. Non-Taser-trained frontline police officers are trained to support Taser officers, they
receive Taser awareness training as part of their officer safety training.
17. Any officer trained in the use of a CED must complete a minimum of 18 contact hours
training, typically delivered over three days and cannot be authorised for any longer
than 365 days. To be re-authorised they must complete a minimum of six hours
refresher training delivered over one day. Please see the link below to the College of
Policing website for more details.
19. Before an officer can apply to be CED trained and authorised to carry a CED they must
comply with a series of pre-requisites, including:
Should possess sound judgement, a knowledge and understanding of the National
Decision Model to resolve incidents involving conflict, have demonstrated maturity of
action in the workplace, demonstrated an ability to use legitimate force in a proportionate
and lawful manner and have an acceptable professional standards / complaints and
misconduct record. There is no requirement for psychological profiling to be used for
selection. This must be signed off by an officer of at least the rank of superintendent.
Will be either a student officer having met the requirements for student officers wishing
to access CED training, or have been confirmed in the rank of constable, (or equivalent
agency rank / grade), not being a special constable.
Will be expected to undergo a biennial eyesight test to the same level as authorised
Will undergo an initial user course, of 18 hours minimum contact time, and be expected
to be able to discharge a CED accurately, pass the final examination at the end of the
course, demonstrate competence at dealing with role-play scenarios in training and justify
the use of force using the NDM and demonstrate understanding when dealing with
Will be required to successfully complete annual refresher training, of 6 hours
minimum contact time. If they are found not to be competent during re-training then re-
accreditation must take place or they will leave this role.
Will maintain competence to the national minimum standard in both first aid and officer
safety training. This must include training on acute behavioural disturbance (ABD).
20. If it would be of interest to you and your committee colleagues, then I would be very
happy to arrange a presentation from one of the NPCC leads on Taser followed by the
opportunity to see a full Taser training session.
d) It has been reported in the media that several members of the NPCC National
Taser Stakeholder Advisory Group resigned in April accusing the NPPC of not
taking disproportionality seriously in the use of Tasers. Can you explain to the
Committee the reasons for these resignations and what work the NPCC has since
done to address the concerns that were raised by those members?
21. On the 25th March 2020 NPCC Lead for Taser DAC D’Orsi received a letter from some
members of the National Taser Stakeholder Advisory Group (NTSAG) who tendered
their resignation from the group. A copy of DAC D’Orsi’s response dated 14th May
2020 is attached at Annex B for your information. All of the signatories were relatively
new members and had not attended many meetings of the group. A number of reasons
were given, the most prominent was the failure of police to address disproportionate
use of Taser on BAME communities and individuals. At this time these members were
aware that the Less Lethal Weapons portfolio were already in the process of putting
plans in place to address these concerns by developing work streams in line with an
NPCC review of officer safety. DAC D’Orsi had also discussed that she was exploring
the possibility of conducting a review of perceived Taser disproportionality under the
NPCC officer safety review. This was the earliest opportunity that any meaningful
review could have been carried out as the necessary data had only been available in the
UK for two years. This is the first time that any meaningful analysis of our data can
take place. We are extremely grateful to the remaining members of the group who are
supporting us in taking this review forward. DAC D’Orsi is aware that the speed of
entering a review was frustrating but it is a complex area and delivering a review which
is supported by all relevant parties requires careful consultation. The National Taser
Advisory Group is only one body with whom it is necessary to engage.
22. We are also in the early stages of developing a proposed the terms of reference for an
independent Taser review of disproportionality. We would welcome the Committee’s
views on what this should cover. Initial thoughts from discussions with forces and
others have suggested the following should be included:
What does the existing data tell us about Taser use, including
differences across forces? This could explore context of use, relationships to subject
characteristics and relationships to force demand profiles.
Measuring use of force
: How should we measure use of force involving Taser and
other options? This could focus in on injuries (including psychological impact) caused
by use of force and explore the impact of Taser on levels of force used by police and
levels of injury to subjects, officers and others, including how this varies by incident type,
force area and subject characteristics.
How does the availability of Taser impact police decision making This
could explore how Taser units are deployed and how officers act when at incidents, with
a focus on geographical areas and rates of violence/ injury together with Taser officers
being deployed to violent incidents.
How does single/ double crewing impact on Taser use? The hypothesis here
is that single officers use Taser sooner and more often than double crewed officers.
Use of force at incidents:
How does the availability of Taser impact on the dynamics
of use of force incidents, i.e. duration of an incident, tactics used, subject conduct/
behaviour, officer conduct/ behaviour?
Do subject characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, prior police
contact, etc.) influence officer perceptions and subsequent use of force? How can we
better explain or understand any disproportionality that is identified?
What does the public understand about Taser technology, police
decision making during incidents and safety? This could look at the drivers of how the
public understand Taser and explore how public knowledge be improved and what
impact this could have on perceptions of Taser use. The above strands are wide ranging
and I think this illustrates the challenges facing us in the Taser and Less Lethal Weapons
23. This will be the first review, so it is important to invest time in these early stages and
ensure full consultation. The findings of this review will be used to inform the national
piece of work that I have started to look at race mentioned below.
Stop and search Ian Hopkins mentioned that your communities in GMP were asking for more SS
to take place because of a rise in violent crime. Which communities have requested
an increase in SS and how has this request been made? What reasons were given
for this request?
24. The GMP Stop and Search Coordination Group (SSCG) has two community
representatives on the panel that are from youth support groups based in Manchester.
They work closely with the local youth in Salford and Moss side. Graham Copper from
the Broughton Trust raised at a SSCG meeting that the youths he works with had raised
their concerns, that they did not feel safe due to knives being carried within the
25. Graham stated that the youths had expressed that they wanted GMP to conduct more
stop and searches to address this issue in order to keep the youth community safe.
Graham has highlighted this point again this week stating he is in the process of drafting
a public letter due to the recent negative press around stop and search. He wants to
highlight within this letter that the youths requested an increase in stop and search. He
has linked in with second group on the panel the Hideaway Project who echoes his
26. Overviews of the projects are below-
27. The Broughton Trust was set up in December 1999 and it is a charity and company
limited by guarantee. It has a board of fifteen members, with eight seats reserved for
residents and seven for organisations including social landlords, the University and the
Council. The Trust provides adult learning, youth work, and employment support and
community development across the city.
28. The Trust has ten-year record of effective youth interventions in Salford responding to
street riots, gang rivalry, and rises in violent crime. https://www.thebroughtontrust.org/
29. The Hideaway Project aims to provide high quality youth work in a safe and secure
environment where relationships and trust are developed and cherished, where young
people have a voice and are heard, where difference is celebrated and where everyone
works together to develop the full potential of all. https://thehideaway.org.uk/
Ian also spoke about a number of stop and search scrutiny groups that you have
in place at GMP including a stop and search coordinating group, two youth groups
and an independent ethics panel; the latter group you said also scrutinises police
use of force and SS. Can you provide more detail on how these scrutiny groups
who chairs them,
how individuals on these groups are selected/recruited,
what proportion of their members are from BME communities; and
what data they have access to including whether or not force was used
during a stop and search encounter.
Greater Manchester Police Stop and Search Coordination Group (SSCG)
30. Chief Superintendent Shaun Donnellan chairs the Stop and Search Coordination Group
as the force lead for Stop and Search. He is supported by the Neighbourhoods
Confidence and Equality team. The Stop and Search Coordination Group takes place
quarterly it is attended by-
Stop and search SLT leads (usually Chief Inspectors/Inspectors) representing each
district within GMP
Mayor’s Office- Stop and search lead
Academics from Manchester and Liverpool University - Conducting lay observations
on stop and search
Community Representatives from the youth groups Hideaway Project and the
Broughton Trust- Representing BAME communities.
31. The last meeting took place on 16th January 2020. The April meeting was cancelled due
to the coronavirus response.
32. The SSCG receive the previous quarters of stop and search performance data and a
quarterly report. These reports provide GMP districts breakdowns for their
areas, including number of stops, ethnicity, age, power used, outcomes, quarterly
figures against the previous year and any nominal stopped three times or more in a
twelve-month period. Each district scrutinises the data and reports into the SSCG any
changes to it. If there has been a rise or fall in the number of stops then this would be
flagged and questioned. The detail of searches would then be considered such as if the
number of stops has risen but the number of positive searches (where items were found)
has not risen or has fallen. Other areas that would be looked at and questioned are any
disproportionality in the ethnicity of searches and where an individual has been stopped
three times or more in a twelve month by the same officer. These questions are to
understand the data better and not necessarily indicative of an issue. In the last example
it would be not be unreasonable for a known and active offender on a particular district
to be stopped by the Neighbourhood Officer for that area. The data is also scrutinised
by the community representative on the panel who will raise their views and any
concerns. Other areas are also discussed such as planned community engagement
around stop and search, and topics such as schools, youth groups and local events.
33. Districts that currently have an Independent Advisory Group (IAG) will use this group
to dip sample body worn video footage (BWV) of stop and search. All stop and searches
must be recorded on body worn video. Districts are also expected to dip sample BWV
to highlight good and bad practices and feed the results into the SSCG.
GMP Force Independent Advisory Group (Force IAG)
34. GMP have a Force IAG in place that are currently involved in stop and search scrutiny
and are assisting in the rewrite to GMPs stop and search policy form a public
35. The IAG is independent from GMP and is run by the group its self, GMP only assist
with support the group needs. The groups overview is as follows-
36. IAG Chair is Dr Erinma Bell MBE, highly respected leader from our GM African-
37. The group consists of 16 members with 13 from BAME communities, the group
members where sourced from community groups who expressed interest in joining the
Force IAG. The group decided who would hold the posts of Chair and Vice Chair. The
members are from community groups for across Greater Manchester. The group has
members that represent the following communities: LGBT, Mental Health, Manchester
Youth, BAME & Faith (reps from African- Caribbean, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh,
Arab & Chinese communities), Disabilities & Learning difficulties Reps.
38. Discussions are underway to get representative from Armed Forces Veterans onto this
39. The group look at topics that affect the force as whole and topics the IAG wish to
scrutinise, so the information given to the group can vary for meeting to meeting.
The group has a terms of reference that they are guided by as they will be given
information linked to critical incidents, sensitive topics and use of force etc.
Independent Ethics Committee
40. Greater Manchester’s Independent Ethics Committee was created in 2014 to review
ethical matters within policing. Its terms of reference include:
Providing an ‘Advisory Role’ – supporting police practices
A ‘Leadership in Ethics Role’ – strategically influencing police culture
Members are selected through an open application process
The Committee consists of at least 5 members and will not exceed 11 members.
In order for decisions to be valid, 5 Committee members shall form a quorum.
The Committee will meet at least 4 times a year and in a timely manner to allow
appropriate decision making.
Additional meetings may be called if a particular issue arises that requires it.
The effectiveness of the Ethics Committee will be periodically reviewed by agreement
between the Deputy Mayor and the Chair of the Committee.
41. The Committee is chaired by Bishop David Walker, the Bishop of Manchester.
42. Vacancies are advertised and utilise diverse networks to share the opportunity. Recent
EOIs were reviewed by GMCA (David Byrne, Clare Monaghan) and GMP (Arif
Nawaz), then discussed with the Deputy Mayor. Those successful at EOI review were
invited to interview.
43. The interviews were conducted by the Deputy Mayor and Deputy Chief Constable for
44. The diversity of the current Ethics Committee (9 members in total) includes 3 members
from a black or minority ethnic background, 1 member who is Jewish, and 2 female
45. The Ethic Committee have considered issues surrounding Use of Force on 25/02/19
and 02/09/19. This is in a broader context and not specific to stop and search. Stop and
Search specifically were considered in meetings on the 15/01/18 and 12/03/18, with a
follow up planned in the work schedule for this year.
The Macpherson Report stated that all stops should be recorded. We have heard
that road traffic stops are not recorded. Can you outline why these stops are not
recorded, and what work is being done by the police service to address this?
46. Recommendation 61 of the MacPherson Report stated that a record should be made by
police officers of all “stops” and “stops and searches” made under any legislative
provision, not just under PACE. Non-statutory or so-called “voluntary” stops should
also be recorded. The record should include the reason for the stop, the outcome and
the self-defined ethnicity of the person stopped. A copy of the record should be given to
47. It remains a statutory requirement to record every stop and search (under any legislative
provision) as set out in the Police and Criminal Evidence Act and PACE Code A. These
records are required to include: the reason for the stop, the outcome, reason for arrest
(if applicable), whether the outcome was linked to the reason for the stop (if applicable),
the self-defined ethnicity and officer defined ethnicity. As part of ‘GOWISELY’, an
acronym (See Annex C for details) which guides police officers to conduct mandatory
steps before and during a search, individuals who have been stopped and searched by
police are entitled to be offered a piece of paper with full details of the grounds and
circumstances of the encounter (also known as a ‘search slip’). Technology changes
now mean that in most forces a person will receive a unique reference number, which
they can input into that force’s website to receive a copy of the record of their stop after
being stopped and searched. This provides on-the-ground accountability to reassure
those being searched that the officer has performed the search lawfully.
48. Voluntary stops or ‘stop and account’ are those encounters in which police officers stop
members of the public to ask them to account for their actions, behaviour, presence in
an area or possession of anything, but do not search them. The requirement to record
stop and account was introduced in England and Wales in 2005 following
recommendations made by Sir William Macpherson in 1999.
49. Sir Ronnie Flanagan’s report of ‘The Review of Policing’, produced in February
noted that the ‘manually recorded’ system of stop and account took on average
seven minutes per encounter and ‘usually leads to suspicion on the part of the member
of the public involved’, and that it had been estimated that stop and account consumed
over 48,000 hours of officers' time each year in London. He found that the process had
become bureaucratic and was not fulfilling the need identified in the Stephen Lawrence
Inquiry, namely to ensure ‘courtesy, respect and accountability’.
50. From 7 March 2011 the Home Office removed
the national requirement to record
stop and account in order to reduce police bureaucracy, saving thousands of police
hours. It remains important that the police continue to monitor the professionalism of
their encounters with the public, which the increased use of body worn video assists in
Ian Hopkins told the Committee that police officers receive training on diversity,
inclusion and human rights. Can you explain to the Committee:
diversity, inclusion and human rights training includes, outlining what
topics are addressed?
51. The mandatory curriculum set by the College of Policing for all new officers includes
Understanding and applying core principles of ethics, equality, diversity and human
rights in professional policing, including strategies for challenging behaviour.
Analyse theories and concepts linked to ethics.
Critically evaluate the impact upon policing of differing values, ethics and norms within
Apply professional approaches to policing, demonstrating fairness, ethics and integrity.
Evaluate how the diversity of individuals and society impacts on the criminal justice
system and understand how societal issues impact on individuals in the system.
52. Diversity and ethics are also prominent in other operational and practical learning for
officers after their initial programme, and staff such as Police Community Support
Officers, across the National Policing curriculum. Diversity and ethics form an
important part of modules on public protection, managing conflict, victims and
witnesses, response policing, conducting investigations and communication skills,
allowing the core values of diversity and understanding communities to be emphasised
throughout police training. These important areas are also included in the mandatory
training for all prospective chief officers on the Strategic Command Course which is
run by the College of Policing. The submission from the College of Policing to this
Inquiry provides further detail on the content of the curriculum.
53. As an example of a force’s standalone programme, Greater Manchester Police includes
Week one includes a full day on Human Rights and the Equality Act.
The students also receive training on the NDM and Code of Ethics;
Equality and Human Rights is woven into aspects of a range of other training, including
Stop Search, dealing with victims, suspects, witnesses etc.
They receive a full day on hate crime and incidents and numerous inputs on Public
Protection matters, mental health and vulnerability – again with Human Rights, the
Equality Act, Code of Ethics and the NDM forming the basis for all
54. Spec Ops courses, such as Personal Safety Training, are all opened courses open with
a Welcome Video from ACC Nick Bailey. This video explains that there are golden
threads throughout the training which include ECHR, Code of Ethics and the NDM.
55. General Offer (Police Staff and Officers) – Non- Mandatory
Recruitment and selection training
: Based in Diversity Equality and Inclusion, this
includes panel selection, fair and objective shortlisting, positive action, unconscious bias,
redeployment and adjustments for applications with additional needs
: Presentation design and accessibility- use of colour, font choice
and size, Suitability of content and language/ delivery style- importance of adapting for
different learning styles, Inclusion of those with additional needs
: Assumptions/ Unconscious Bias, Cultural awareness - Use of
appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication, matching behaviours, personal and
organisational values and beliefs, Left/Right brained- 3 step empathy model
Leading People Through Change
: Human response to change and differentiation of
Job Application and Interview Course:
Through development of examples
participants are encouraged to explore how and where they have used NDM, used
Competency Value Framework or Leadership Expectations including values of GMP
throughout; understanding of positive action in recruitment; challenging own thoughts
and identifying learning opportunities
Bitesize Competency Value Framework
: Options and opportunities to support and
develop staff and officers across force- mentoring, coaching, MBTI; Discussion
surrounding success of increased reporting of hate crimes against taxi drivers; success of
meetings of different religious leaders to aid with improvement of understanding of
different religious and cultural beliefs. National Decision-Making Model (NDM) & Code
of Ethics, Risk Principles; Bloom’s Taxonomy; justification and rationale- challenging
: Barriers to demonstrating assertiveness- cultural, religious,
age, gender awareness. Communication styles; Understanding own reactions and those
of others, Self-reflection and pledge to change
Developing Diverse Leaders/Senior (DDL):
DDL programmes are open to
police officers underrepresented backgrounds and female officers
‘The Personal Development Action Learning Sets’ is open to colleagues
from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds. It is aimed at developing
staff from diverse backgrounds, GMP has seen success through the 3 years the
programme has been running – 40 out of 71 participants have either been
promoted/gained a higher graded job or made a lateral move after attending PeDALS.
We are now working with the College with a view to introducing this scheme on a
Do all officers receive this training, and if not, why not?
56. The detail set out at (a) is the current curriculum for the Police Constable Degree
Apprenticeship and other new routes, which are not yet delivered in all forces. All
officers will have received equality and diversity training as part of the Initial Police
Learning and Development Programme since 2006.
57. Ongoing training is a matter for forces and delivery will vary. The College of
Policing offer learning standards for a standalone equality and diversity module for all
officers and staff which covers a general understanding of equality and diversity and
the human dynamics of difference between individuals and groups, including
58. As an example of a force’s standalone programme, within Greater Manchester Police
all officers receive initial training on joining the Force and will receive refresher
training including accredited and mandatory courses. The remaining training is for
officers and staff and is the wider, non-mandatory CPD offer.
59. The force is in the process of redesigning the Sergeants and Inspectors Leaders Courses,
both of which will be mandatory, and which will include Inclusion and elements of
all of the CPD core CPD training listed above (and as referenced in the presentation
60. It is also planned at that as part of the governance review of all training (to occur
annually), that there will be a DEI review to ensure that they are in line with best
Does this training include specific modules on antiracist practice including
institutional racism, white privilege and racial microaggressions?
61. The College standards specifically include institutional discrimination, but not white
privilege or micro-aggressions. As delivery to officers will be determined by force
programme content, training will vary in what specific examples of antiracist practice
62. Finally, I take the opportunity to say more about the work on race and equality that I
have recently commenced and provide an indication to you and the committee on the
timing of the next steps.
63. The Committee will be aware of the statement that I issued on behalf of Chief Officers
on 18 June 2020 as part of NPCC’s continued response to the death of George Floyd
and to the international outpouring of emotion seen in BLM events.
64. Over the last few weeks I have had numerous conversations with Chief Constables and
there is no doubt that collectively and individually it has been a period of deep reflection
on the relationship that we have as a service, and as leaders, with our black communities
and with our black staff. There has been extensive discussion and listening, both
internally and externally, in all forces and this has presented a challenging picture.
Much work has been done and is being done, and real progress has been made. But it
is not enough, and it has not moved fast enough.
65. Your inquiry centres on progress since a previous ‘moment in time’ for police relations
with the black community. There have also been others, but we are determined that the
opportunity that this ‘moment in time’ presents not be lost.
66. This work will involve all ranks in designing our plan of action. We will involve those
groups that represent and support our BAME officers and staff. We will reach out to
those who work with us and provide challenge in communities. The intention is to
produce an inclusive and clear plan of action for sustainable change.
67. It would be premature to outline the plan at this stage, but I would like to give an
indication of the areas that are most likely based on the consultation that I have done so
far with some of the key leaders in this work. The detail will be discussed in planned
sessions at Chief Constables’ Council (CCC) on the 15th July. Discussions have
suggested that we should begin by capturing the ‘voice’ of our black staff and
communities, to understand their experiences. We will support this by working up plans
to collect more consistent and comprehensive data across all forces to present a national
picture that can be broken down. This must be both internal and external data. We
know that consistent data is area of weakness within policing and needs work. However,
much can be done with the data that we have if subjected to rigorous and contextualised
68. Using this better understanding as a starting point, we will then apply this to agreed key
areas. The group discussions that I have held have all pointed towards three areas that
should be included in this: our internal police environment and organisation; the use of
our powers, in particular stop and search, use of force and Taser; and considering the
effectiveness of our community engagement. The skeleton of the plan of action
will start to emerge in discussions at CCC later this month and will be subject to further
discussion, wide-ranging consultation and challenge in the weeks that follow. I am
considering the creation of a ‘commissioning group’ to provide oversight on the
creation of the plan, and then on its implementation. I would welcome an opportunity
to discuss with you and colleagues the emerging plan that comes from these initial
discussions and consultations at some point in August to suit you and your colleagues.
ANNEX A – GREATER MANCHESTER POLICE APPROACH TO ISSUING FPNs.
This Annex includes: (i) Public Engagement Strategy written by the Chief Constable,
communicated to all Chief Officers 5th April 2020 (ii) Social Media Campaign (iii) Local media
reporting of Campaign (iv) Internal force messaging (v) GMP Interactions Summary.
Further to the messages we shared this morning and my concerns about how we achieve
compliance with current restrictions and avoid unnecessary conflict I have set out below a draft
strategy for us to work up tomorrow. I will ask Nicola Spragg to arrange a video conference at the
earliest opportunity tomorrow to allow us to work up further. Public Engagement Strategy Context:
We are now entering the third week of the restrictions the UK Government announced on 24
March 2020. It is clear that for many the restrictions are relatively straight forward to comply
with and we are seeing a high degree of compliance across Greater Manchester. This is evidenced
through data from GMPTE in terms of journeys by private vehicles, reduction in overall crime,
compliance with social distancing in supermarkets and the majority of open spaces, the vast
majority of businesses being closed.
We are seeing an increase in private parties in a residential setting and a growing number of large
scale gatherings. This is to be expected as we move further into the restriction period as people
become more complacent and seek outlets from isolation. This risk will only grow over time.
It is clear there is a social divide around the restrictions that policing must consider. More middle
class and affluent parts of Greater Manchester may find dealing with the restrictions somewhat
easier to cope with. This is because of the ability to enjoy their homes and gardens and outdoor
spaces without breaching the restrictions; the ability to work from home may be easier; more
likely to have maintained an income; more access to family and friends and entertainment
through digital channels; greater ability to access food through collections and use of alternative
sources such as local producers. This is of course a generalisation as we have seen high profile
examples of significant breaches by high profile individuals such as footballers and the Scottish
Chief Medical Advisor. Of course much of the excess travelling to beauty spots locally and further
afield was by citizens in this group.
For many in Greater Manchester the current restrictions are proving very challenging. Policing
needs to recognise this and be tolerant of peoples individual circumstances, whilst seeking
solutions to help people understand the necessity to comply with the restrictions, for their own
health and the health of others. Living in a flat with no outdoor space, or living in a small house
with a number of adults and children and limited space, or having no income and limited access to
food and necessities is a real challenge that we must show compassion and understanding to their
Policing by consent is a fundamental strand of our democracy in the UK. Never before has this
been so precious and is something we as a society should cherish. It is incumbent on all officers
and staff to uphold the principles of policing by consent. Sir Robert Peels principles are clear that
that at all times we maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic
tradition that the police are the public and that the public are the police, the police being only
members of the public who are paid to give full time attention to the duties which are incumbent
on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.
Peels Principles should be our touchstone in combination with the Code of Ethics for our Policing
style and communications throughout the Coronavirus Epidemic. Policing has found itself in a
difficult position of being asked to enforce crisis led legislation, with no time to train or apply
consistent application. Numerous high profile commentators have been seeking to highlight
where individual officers or indeed Police Forces have moved away from Peels principles and
appear to restrict the tradition of freedoms UK Citizens hold dear.
Trust and confidence by citizens in Greater Manchester Police and the wider Police service is
paramount to our future relationships with our citizens. We must do everything we can to
maintain trust and confidence now and moving through this crisis. We must recognise that not all
citizens face the same challenges in dealing with the current restrictions. We should be
empathetic, whilst applying a common sense approach to enforcing the emergency legislation.
The Four E’s approach of engagement, explanation, encouragement and enforcement must be
It is very clear that this approach is challenging us in some communities and presenting our
frontline colleagues with real issues. We have a dual challenge of maintaining confidence in our
ability to achieve the aim of Protecting the NHS and saving lives as well as maintaining confidence
in our leadership of our colleagues.
The longer the restrictions remain in place the more likely we are to see less compliance. This
could potentially result in greater community tension and the risk of conflict between the public
and the Police. We need to do everything we can to avoid this potential for conflict and
subsequent loss of trust and confidence in Greater Manchester Police by the people we serve. AIMS:
Protect the NHS
Save lives through stopping the spread of the virus.
Achieve compliance by the majority of the public with Government restrictions.
Maintain trust and confidence in policing.
Avoid conflict between the police and our communities.
Adhere to Peels Principles and the Code of Ethics.
Ensure business continuity for Policing by avoiding having to deal with conflict and
Give confidence to our staff through our leadership in demonstrating we are
dealing with their frontline reality.
Create a Police led coalition of trusted voices to deliver messages of compliance
with restrictions to specific communities.
Build a coalition of local media outlets to all give consistent messaging to
Promote good levels of compliance and positive community initiatives.
Engage football clubs at Board level to assist with strategy and form part of the
coalition of trusted voices.
Engage Lancashire Cricket Club at Board level to assist with strategy and form part
of the coalition of trusted voices.
Engage Coronation Street at Producer level to assist with strategy and form part
of the coalition of trusted voices.
Engage Boxing stars such as Anthony Corolla and Tyson Fury to assist with
strategy and form part of the coalition of trusted voices.
Engage with music industry stars and influencers to assist with the strategy and
form part of the coalition of trusted voices.
Engage with social media influencers, social media influencers, reality TV stars to
assist with the strategy and form part of the coalition of trusted voices.
Engage with Religious leaders to form part of the coalition of trusted voices.
Engage local community voices to form part of the coalition of trusted voices.
Engage individuals who have suffered from COVID 19 or lost a family member
from communities we wish to target to form part of the coalition of trusted voices.
Engage local media, ITV Granada, BBC NW, BBC radio, Hits Radio, MEN to agree to
support the campaign of trusted voices.
Engage with key employers in most challenging communities to form part of the
coalition of trusted voices.
Ensure all officers and staff comply with our aims and objectives through effective
Ensure Greater Manchester Police are not seen to be lecturing our more
challenging communities or criticising their choices.
Ensure better compliance particularly in private homes and public spaces.
Minimise conflict with our communities across Greater Manchester.
Enforce emergency legislation where necessary and appropriate.
Social Media Campaign
An outcome of this strategy was a Social Media campaign, utilising Manchester celebrities giving the
Stay at Home message.
Link to Social Media videos – To Follow. Local media reporting of campaign https://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/gmp-mobile-
Internal force messaging
A consistent approach was adopted in tone and the continued emphasis on engagement, and
enforcement as a last resort.
Timeline of Key Internal Message by CC Hopkins:
The Chief completed an internal video message where he reminded all staff
of policing by consent. (two days before the enforcement changes were made)
This messages was included in the daily bulletin for all GMP staff (the day after
the changes were made)
GOLD Decision. Project Servator was suspended – Due to the public
misinterpreting why officers were stopping people in cars. Staff concern that we
were stopping due to Covid legislation. The instruction is terms of policing style
was these were rapidly enacted powers which were likely to have different
interpretations. Our style was one of policing by consent, no roadblocks, no
drones, and enforcement as a last resort working with our communities.
Chief recorded another internal message explaining the four E’s process and the
decision made at GOLD.
Daily bulletin re-emphasised the importance of using the first 3 E’s.
4th April 9th April
Proactive media educating the public and reiterating GMPs stance.
Chief internal video message with contained messaging around the 4Es with
specific regard to Ramadan and Eid.
GMP interactions Summary
(As of 23rd June):
GMP established a system whereby all Covid-19 related incidents were given a closing code. This has
enabled us to identify the instances where police officers have interacted with members of the
public as a result of a report of breaching coronavirus legislation. From this closing code we know
that the total number of interactions where there may have been potential to issue a notice was
2591 (Closing code of G24) but the total number of notices that were successfully issued
Simplistically this can be presented as only 12% of incidents resulted in enforcement
activity. There are caveats around this in terms of rigour and quality assurance of implementing a
new closing code – checks on the correct and consistent closure of incidents, and further does not
allow for multiple FPNs issued at a single incident. However, these figures do give a sense of the
proportion of interactions that have resulted in enforcement, against engage, encourage, explain. ANNEX B – Letter from NPCC Taser Lead DAC Lucy D’Orsi dated 14 May 2020 on
Resignation of members of the National Taser Stakeholder Advisory Group Resignation from the National Taser Stakeholder Advisory Group (NTSAG)
Thank you for your letter dated 25th March 2020 and I apologise for the delayed response. I was
sorry to read that you have tendered your resignation to the National Taser Stakeholder Advisory
Group. As per the protocols in the constitution, I have forwarded your letter and had discussions
with the chair and other members of the group. I am encouraged to hear that the NTSAG will
I thought it may be useful to reflect on the history of the NTSAG. You will recall that it evolved from
the independent scrutiny groups introduced by the Metropolitan Police c2008. At that time,
concern centred on the introduction of Taser for non-firearms officers and we felt that an
independent group would be a constructive way for groups and/or individuals, with an interest in
police Taser deployment and use, to share their views and suggestions with national policing.
Whilst there has been much change since 2008, I remain firmly of the belief that the NTSAG is a
really valuable group which is able to lobby, challenge and influence policing constructively. As you
have acknowledged we will never agree on everything but different thinking and healthy debate is
essential, and something I have always personally valued. I remain grateful to the NTSAG members
for giving their time and commitment, as they are an extremely important member of the National
Less Lethal Weapons Working Group.
Turning to some of the specific issues you raise in your letter, I thought it would be useful to
comment on the key points: Taser Usage
I do agree with you that Taser use has risen across the UK however, this should be considered
against the broader context. There has been a rise in the number of officers who are now trained to
and some ‘violence’ crime rates have risen, including knife-enabled crime. Disproportionality
I have always recognised the concerns that you have vocalised around general police
disproportionality. At the last meeting you attended, I explained that I felt the concerns you
articulated were wider than solely the use of Taser. I highlighted the National Police Chiefs’ Council
(NPCC) ‘Officer Safety Review’, which was due to be published and I felt there was a read across into
this work. I advised the group that disproportionality was included within the review and,
specifically to Taser use, one of the recommendations being that the NPCC and College of Policing
investigate the concerns raised about disproportionality in Taser use and seek to offer evidence
based solutions to minimise it through social research. That review is ongoing.
At a recent meeting I agreed to look at how we could look to evaluate the use of Taser further which
I know you did not feel was a satisfactory answer. I did agree with you that there is benefit in
securing independent research to look at the disproportionality in Taser use. Since then I have been
exploring how to commission and fund independent research and hope to update the NTSAG
imminently on progress. This will be an interesting and valuable piece of work and NTSAG will be
key in developing and agreeing the scope of the research. I have discussed this with the NTSAG, and
we have also been progressing discussions with the College of Policing on how to secure research
through the Solutions Panel. I am grateful to the NTSAG member who has been helping us with this.
In terms of the broader topic of disproportionality, I know the College of Policing are aware of your
concerns from other meetings you have been engaged with.
Specifically focussing on Taser, national statistics show that between 2018 and 2019 there were
23,500 uses of Taser. O
f those Taser uses, 89% were passive, non-discharge
remaining 11% were discharges
. If we look at ethnicity and in particular black and white ethnic
groupings, the statistics show:
Total Taser use
Non-discharge of Taser
Discharge of Taser
Taser use 2018-2019, Office for National Statistics
Since 2007, there has been a steady decrease in the total number of Taser discharges per year. The
figures demonstrate that black people are more likely to be subject of non-discharge of Taser (88%
compared to 83% for white people) and white people (12%) are more likely to have Taser
discharged on them than black people (10%). Taser is one of many tactical options that officers have
in the face of violence or threats of violence.
These statistics have been published with a degree of caution. It is only the second year that
statistics have been published in this way and we anticipate that the figures will be more consistent
and reliable as we go forward. Police Use of Force
I was aware from the meetings you attended that this was an area you felt strongly about. At
July’s meeting DAC Matt Twist, the NPCC lead for Self-defence and Restraint (SDAR), attended and
explained the national position. There was a strong view from the group on this and there were
areas where we agreed, but also some where we could not agree. At this meeting and subsequent
ones, I highlighted some key points which demonstrate the accountability of the use of force by
UK legislation, which requires officers to justify their use of force and their broader actions.
This justification can be, and often is, tested in court.
Officers are also working to the Police Code of Ethics and misconduct regulations.
The Independent Office for Police Complaints (IOPC), an independent body which investigates
complaints by the public or cases that police forces elect to refer to them. They investigate the most
serious matters, including deaths following police contact, and set the standards by which the
police should handle complaints.
In addition, I reflected that many forces have checks and balances in place to ensure that officers
act in accordance with the law, such as:
Body worn cameras worn by officers
Officer Safety Training
Supervision of patrolling officers
Use of Force Reporting
Local Force Independent Advisory Groups (IAGs)
I recognise that there may be times when an officer’s actions fall below what is expected of them
and these are investigated, either by the IOPC or the relevant force’s Professional Standards
Department. Taser Policy
You highlighted Taser policy. I have tried to reassure the NTSAG that we continually review our
policies and procedures. In addition to this, other bodies and groups such as Dstl and SACMILL
review policy and ultimately there is Home Officer oversight. The
NTSAG is a further valuable
group in the accountability of policy. We will continue to review policy and welcome the
contribution of the NTSAG in this area.
Taser is an effective device and there has been many years of testing and evaluation. Officers attend
a strict training course, which is pass/fail and the curriculum takes into account years of learning.
I know some members of the NTSAG have attended the training. I would like to still offer you the
opportunity to have full access to the training and participate. I know other members found this
valuable and they have provided some excellent feedback.
My team and I have always welcomed suggestions to change and adapt. I am not aware of anything
specific that has been put forward in this area for consideration, but we will continue to work with
the NTSAG in this area. National Decision Model
You mention the National Intelligence Model
as not being fit for purpose in your letter. I assume
you mean the National Decision Model (NDM). This model is a key part of policing and is used in
operational and non-operational decision making. I cannot agree that it is not fit for purpose when I
reflect on the research, thinking and evidence base, which sits behind it. However, I recognise the
strength of your feelings on this so I would suggest that this is something you discuss with the
College of Policing whom I know some of you are in contact with. I will also share your concerns
with them. I will of course discuss with the NTSAG if there is anything specific relating to Taser and
the broader area of less lethal weapons and the use of the NDM, as nothing specific to date has
been raised. Consultation with the NTSAG
I must disagree with your assertion that policing has not consulted with the NTSAG. In your letter
you mention two specific areas where you feel you were not consulted, uplift to Taser and the
Officer Safety Review. The financial uplift to forces for the purchase of Taser was a Home Office
decision. Any increase in the number of Tasers is owned by individual Chief Constables who consider
the necessity against their annual Strategic Threat and Risk Assessment and local IAGs are
consulted. In addition, there is accountability through the Office of the Police and Crime
As explained above, the Officer Safety Review is not governed by the Less Lethal Weapons working
group. However, we will be considering the recommendations of the review with the Less Lethal
Weapons National Working Group, of which the NTSAG is a member. I will give feedback that you
felt there would have been benefit in your inclusion.
Every decision and development in respect of less lethal weapons and Taser is discussed at the
national Less Lethal Weapons Working Group, which meets four times a year. NTSAG is a member
and always has a representative present so I am unclear on how you feel you are not included in
discussions. In addition, the NTSAG meets at least quarterly and we attend with other key
stakeholders such as the College of Policing, Dstl, SACMILL and the Home Office.
I feel disappointed that you have not reflected the involvement that the NTSAG had in the decisions
around the carriage of Taser by probationary officers and special constables. These were extensive
pieces of work and the NTSAG was involved in both. I was grateful for the work of your colleagues in
both of these areas as they brought fair challenge and without question influenced our approach,
thinking and final recommendations to National Police Chief Constables’ Council.
Of course, there is still more we can do and we are not complacent. At the last meeting, NTSAG
members raised some key areas for us to do more work on together. I welcome scrutiny and
recognise the benefit of the NTSAG in achieving this.
Taser is an effective device for policing: the mere presence of the device, in 90% of occasions brings
violent or potentially violent situations to a swift and safe conclusion, without the need to fire or
use physical force, thus ensuring the safety of the public and officers. I will continue to work with
the NTSAG and together I am sure we will make a significant impact, striking the balance between
the human rights of individuals and upholding the law.
I am copying this letter to all members of the NTSAG. ANNEX C – Stop and Search Acronym GOWISELY explained
A clear explanation of the officer’s grounds
for suspicion, eg, info/intel or
specific behaviour of person.
A clear explanation of the object
and purpose of the search in terms of the
article being searched for.
card, if not in uniform or if requested.
of the officer(s): name and number or, in cases involving terrorism or
where there is a specific risk to the officer, just warrant or collar number.
to which the officer is attached.
to a copy of the search record within 3 months.
are detained for the purposes of a search.
https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmicfrs/media/flanagan-review-of-policing-20080201.pdf  https://www.gov.uk/government/news/home-secretary-gives-first-major-speech-on-policing
re are currently c35,000 Taser trained police officers. A year ago, there were c31,000.  Of
fice for National Statistics (ONS), https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice
fice for National Statistics, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/police-use-of-force-statistics-england-and-wales-april-
23,500 uses of Taser against 428,000 uses of force in general across policing.  The
Scientific Advisory Committee on the Medical Implications of Less-Lethal Weapons (SACMILL) is an advisory
nondepartmental public body of the British Ministry of Defence set up to advise the British government in regard to the medical
implications of less-lethal weapons. 
The NIM is the model that provides intelligence that senior managers can use to help them formulate strategic direction,
make tactical resourcing decisions and manage risk.
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