This is an HTML version of an attachment to the Freedom of Information request 'University policies on gender-based violence, sexual misconduct, violence, bullying and harassment'.


4. Definition of Bullying 
Bullying is behaviour by an individual or a group repeated over time, that intentionally hurts another 
individual or group physically or emotionally.  Although bullying has no definition in law, it can be 
characterised as:
Offensive and unwanted behaviour, which violates a person’s dignity, or creates an intimidating, hostile, 
degrading, threatening or offensive environment or which humiliates or undermines an individual or group. 
Bullying can be carried out by an individual or group.
Bullying can be:
Racist & Religious
Sexual, sexist and transphobic
Examples of being bullied include: 
• Physical Bullying: Including kicking, punching, hitting, spitting, biting, tripping someone up or 
damaging belongings or University work.
• Threat of physical violence: or an explicit or implied threat of violence or intimidating behaviour, 
being shouted at or verbal abuse;
• Coercion: threats or forcing someone to do what they do no want to do;
• Emotional bullying: rejection or isolating tactics, staring or threatening looks, playing on fears or 
sensitivities, remarks about personal appearance. Unwarranted disparaging, ridiculing or mocking 
comments and remarks; being criticised in an inappropriate manner or belittled about one's work, 
personality, lifestyle or personal appearane,
• Indirect: Telling lies and rumour spreading, talking behind a person's back, using chatrooms or websites 
or similar means to spread or invite hatred, being humiliated in front of peers or other people, 
deliberate exlusion of an individual from activites; 
• Prejudice-driven bullying: Which is driven by negative attitudes towards another group of people or 
because the victim is seen as 'different'. This can become more severe over time and can lead to hate 
crime. It can be related to race, religion or culture, special educational needs or disabilities, 
appearance or health conditions, sexuality or gender, perceived sexual orientation and any so-called 
perceived differences. 
• Cyber bullying: an aggressive and intentional act carried out by an individual or group, using electronic 
forms of communication.  

How to identify bullying
Some Students will disclose incidents to a member of staff; others may find this more difficult and
instead may indicate by signs or behaviour that he or she is being bullied.  Some possible signs and
symptoms are:

Begin doing poorly in their course work • Show signs of distress • Become withdrawn,
anxious or lacking in confidence • Have unexplained bruises, scratches, cuts • Have
possessions go missing • Ask for money or begin stealing • Alter attendance patterns.
These signs and behaviours could indicate other problems, but bullying should be considered a 
possibility and should be investigated. 
Definition of Harassment
The Equality Act 2010 – definitions of harassment:

Unwanted conduct that has the purpose or effect of violating a person’s dignity, or creating
an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment for a person that is
related to age, disability, gender reassignment, race, religion or belief, sex or sexual
orientation; Individuals are protected from harassment because of a perception of, or an
association with a protected characteristic.

Unwanted conduct of a sexual nature (sexual harassment);

Treating a person less favourably than another person because they have been the subject of
sexual harassment or harassment related to sex or gender reassignment.
Examples of harassment include: 

Sexual Harassment can take the form of ridicule, sexually provocative remarks or jokes,
offensive comments about dress or appearance, the display or distribution of sexually explicit
material, unwelcome sexual advances or physical contact, demands for sexual favours or assault.

Racial Harassment is directed at people from ethnic minorities. It may include jokes about, or
gratuitous references to, a person’s colour, race, caste, religion or nationality. It can include offensive
remarks about dress, culture, or customs which ridicule or undermine an individual, or foster hatred
and/or prejudice towards individuals or particular groups.

Harassment related to Disability includes individuals being ignored, disparaged or ridiculed.
This can include inappropriate personal remarks, jokes or inappropriate reference to an individual’s
appearance/ disability/ perceived limitations.

Harassment related to Sexual Orientation including remarks, jokes or offensive comments
towards a person’s sexual orientation, threats to disclose a person’s sexual orientation to others, or
offensive behaviour/abuse relating to HIV or AIDS status.

Harassment relating to Gender Identity or Presentation including remarks, jokes, slurs or
offensive comments relating to a person’s gender identity or presentation, threats to disclose a
person’s intention to or steps towards undertaking a gender transition, refusal to identify a person
undergoing a transition in correlation with their acquired gender identity, or offensive, inappropriate
or invasive questions regarding a person’s gender identity.

Harassment relating to Age includes derogatory comments, making remarks about a person’s
ability to learn, exclusion from social activities.

Document Outline