J9 FOI Secretariat
Permanent Joint Headquarters (United Kingdom)
Reference: FOI 2019/11821
28 November 2019
Mr I Overton email@example.com
Dear Mr Overton,
Thank you for your request of 16 October 2019 in which you requested the following
As you know, a “blind” or “blind munition” are the terms for a launched, fired or
dropped weapon that does not function against the target and is left on the battlefield.
I would like to know, please, the number of known or recorded "blind" munitions in Iraq
and Syria following RAF airstrikes over these countries.
I would like, please, this data to be broken down by aircraft type responsible for the
strike (e.g. Typhoon, Tornado and Reaper) and by month, beginning from September
2014 (Iraq) and December 2015 (Syria) up to the end of September 2019 if possible.
Please include data up to the latest date possible while processing this request.
Our correspondence, dated 13 November 2019, informed you that the information you
requested may fall within the scope of a qualified exemption. In our original correspondence
we stated that the qualified exemption we were conducting the Public Interest Test on was
Section 26 (Defence). We have subsequently also carried out a Public Interest Test under
Section 43 (Commercial interests). It was determined that the public interest in maintaining
both exemptions outweighs the public interest in disclosure.
Information regarding ‘blind munitions’ or unexploded bombs (UXB) has been withheld under
Section 26 (Defence) as it is assessed that overall the release of such information would
compromise UK military effectiveness and future operations, by revealing UK tactics and strike
capabilities to adversaries.
Releasing UXB information has been withheld under Section 43 (Commercial interests)
additionally, so as not to negatively affect the UK government’s relationship with the
manufacturers, and also protect the ‘trade secrets’1 owned by the manufacturer.
If you have any queries about this request please do not hesitate to contact this office,
remembering to quote the reference number above in any future communication.
If you wish to complain about the handling of your request, or the content of this response, you
can request an independent internal review by contacting the Information Rights Compliance
team, Ground Floor, MOD Main Building, Whitehall, SW1A 2HB (e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org).
Please note that any request for an internal review should be made within 40 working days of
the date of this response.
If you remain dissatisfied following an internal review, you may raise your complaint directly to
the Information Commissioner under the provisions of Section 50 of the Freedom of
Information Act. Please note that the Information Commissioner will not normally investigate
your case until the MOD internal review process has been completed. The Information
Commissioner can be contacted at: Information Commissioner’s Office, Wycliffe House, Water
Lane, Wilmslow, Cheshire, SK9 5AF. Further details of the role and powers of the Information
Commissioner can be found on the Commissioner's website at https://ico.org.uk/.
PJHQ J9 FOI Secretariat
1 A trade secret can be thought of as the property of an organisation and clauses in employment contracts will often
prevent an ex-employee from disclosing a trade secret.