Dear Warwickshire Police,

I understand that there is Home Office Approved Training for the application of handcuffs on suspects/detainees, however, there seems to be a lack of information regarding what type of suspect/detainee should have which of the approved application methods applied.

I have found information that rear handcuffing in the stack position should be applied to slimmer people and larger suspects should have either back to back (of hand) or if impractical, to have 2 sets of handcuffs connected together.

It is clear that some people are too large to have rear stack at all or are large enough not to be able to have rear stack without causing considerable pain, discomfort and injury, yet I have found evidence of some people who clearly shouldn't have been handcuffed in the rear stack position being handcuffed in the aforementioned position.

What is your force policy on handcuffing large people who struggle to or cannot practically position their hands/arms for a rear stack and what are officers taught in regards to handcuffing in the rear stack position?

Yours faithfully,

Daniel Elliott

Information Compliance,

Dear Mr Elliott
 
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REQUEST REFERENCE NOs: West Mercia Police 12549 and
Warwickshire Police 12550
 
I write in connection with your request for West Mercia Police and
Warwickshire Police information which was dated and received on 10th
September 2019.
 
Your request will now be considered in accordance with the Freedom of
Information Act 2000 (the Act). 
 
Please note that due to an unprecedented number of requests being received
for subject access and FOI, for the foreseeable future requests are now
being triaged and addressed in the following order; Subject Access
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exempt or containing a reference to a third party. and we ask for your
understanding.
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Yours sincerely
 
 
 
Information Compliance Administrator
Information Compliance Unit
Warwickshire Police & West Mercia Police
P O Box 55
Hindlip  WR3 8SP
 
DD 01905 331545 (Ext. 2545)
 
 
 

Information Compliance,

 
 
 
Dear Mr Elliott
 
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REQUEST REFERENCE NOs: West Mercia Police 12549 and
Warwickshire Police 12550
 
I write in connection with your request for West Mercia Police and
Warwickshire Police information which was dated and received on 10th
September 2019.
 
Your request will now be considered in accordance with the Freedom of
Information Act 2000 (the Act). 
 
Please note that due to an unprecedented number of requests being received
for subject access and FOI, for the foreseeable future requests are now
being triaged and addressed in the following order; Subject Access
requests and then FOI requests.  Every effort will be made to meet our
statutory timescales for responses, subject to the information not being
exempt or containing a reference to a third party. and we ask for your
understanding.
We will aim to provide the information within 20 working days as required
by the Freedom of Information Act.
 
There may be a fee payable for the retrieval, collation and provision of
the information you request.  If this is the case you will be informed and
the 20 working day timescale will be suspended until we receive payment
from you. If you chose not to make payment then your request will remain
unanswered.
 
Some requests may also require either full or partial transference to
another public authority in order to answer your query in the fullest
possible way. Again, you will be informed if this is the case.
 
Should you have any further enquiries concerning this matter, please write
or telephone the Information Compliance Unit quoting the reference number
above.
 
 
Yours sincerely
 
 
 
Information Compliance Administrator
Information Compliance Unit
Warwickshire Police & West Mercia Police
P O Box 55
Hindlip  WR3 8SP
 
DD 01905 331545 (Ext. 2545)
 
 
 

@ Freedom of Information, Warwickshire Police

 
Dear Mr Elliott
 
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REQUEST REFERENCE NOs: Warwickshire Police 12550
and West Mercia Police 12549
I write in connection with your requests for information which were
received on 10^th September 2019.  Please find below the responses to your
requests for Warwickshire Police and West Mercia Police information:
Request:
I understand that there is Home Office Approved Training for the
application of handcuffs on suspects/detainees, however, there seems to be
a lack of information regarding what type of suspect/detainee should have
which of the approved application methods applied.
I have found information that rear handcuffing in the stack position
should be applied to slimmer people and larger suspects should have either
back to back (of hand) or if impractical, to have 2 sets of handcuffs
connected together.
It is clear that some people are too large to have rear stack at all or
are large enough not to be able to have rear stack without causing
considerable pain, discomfort and injury, yet I have found evidence of
some people who clearly shouldn't have been handcuffed in the rear stack
position being handcuffed in the aforementioned position.
What is your force policy on handcuffing large people who struggle to or
cannot practically position their hands/arms for a rear stack and what are
officers taught in regards to handcuffing in the rear stack position?
 
 
REPLY:
Firstly, I apologise for the delay in responding to your request.  Please
find below the Warwickshire Police and West Mercia Police response:
We have no formal force policy with regard to handcuffing large people who
struggle to or cannot practically position their hands/arms for a rear
stack.
The following information which may be of interest to you, has been
provided by the Forces Learning and Development Department,
All Warwickshire Police and West Mercia Police Officer Safety Training
(including Handcuffing) is material taken solely from the College of
Policing Personal Safety Manual of Guidance
Warwickshire Officers and West Mercia Officers are taught during their
initial training and reiterated/updated during all refresher courses to
use either a ‘Front Stack’ application or a ‘Rear Back to Back’
application.
 
The decision to apply handcuffs in any formation is down to the officer
who will use the National Decision Model (NDM) to justify their decision
making process. This will include considering factors such as behaviour,
impact factors and an assessment of threat.
 
Officers do have the option of using multiple handcuffs for one subject,
but as only a single pair are issued to Officers, this would need
additional Officers to attend the incident to provide such resources.
 
There are a number of nationally recognised handcuffing techniques, and
although we do not specifically cover the ‘rear stack’ application within
the refresher training, its use can again be justified using the NDM. The
decision to apply a rear stack could be for reasons such as the
size/flexibility of the subject, the resistance they are presenting or
through an urgency for handcuffs to be applied. The officer will still
need to use the NDM and based on their threat assessment may consider
changing the rear stack formation to a rear back to back when it is safe
and practicable to do so.
 
 
Your attention is drawn to the below which details your right of
complaint.
Should you have any further enquiries concerning this matter, please write
or telephone the Information Compliance Unit quoting the reference number
above.
 
Yours sincerely
 
 
 
 
 
Warwickshire Police in complying with their statutory duty under sections
1 and 11 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 to release the enclosed
information will not breach the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. 
However, the rights of the copyright owner of the enclosed information
will continue to be protected by law.  Applications for the copyright
owner’s written permission to reproduce any part of the attached
information should be addressed to The Force Solicitor, West Mercia Police
Headquarters, PO Box 55, Hindlip, Worcester, WR3 8SP.
 
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West Mercia Police Headquarters
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Hindlip Hall
Hindlip
Worcester
WR3 8SP
 
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References

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1. mailto:[email address]
2. https://ico.org.uk/